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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training Program

Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training Program

Date: August 27, 2008
Creator: Alexander, Kristina
Description: This report discusses laws related to the protection of marine mammals when using mid-frequency active sonar including the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), the Endangered Species Act (ESA), the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA). The report discusses each of the laws generally, and then reviews the litigation surrounding the Navy's compliance with these laws in the context of using the sonar for training purposes off California's coast.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training Program

Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training Program

Date: April 15, 2008
Creator: Alexander, Kristina
Description: This report discusses laws related to the protection of marine mammals when using mid-frequency active sonar including the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), the Endangered Species Act (ESA), the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA). The report discusses each of the laws generally, and then reviews the litigation surrounding the Navy's compliance with these laws in the context of using the sonar for training purposes off California's coast.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Whales and Sonar: Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training

Whales and Sonar: Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training

Date: November 14, 2008
Creator: Alexander, Kristina
Description: This report discusses laws related to the protection of marine mammals when using mid-frequency active sonar including the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), the Endangered Species Act (ESA), the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA). The report discusses each of the laws generally, and then reviews the litigation surrounding the Navy's compliance with these laws in the context of using the sonar for training purposes off California's coast.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Whales and Sonar: Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training

Whales and Sonar: Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training

Date: February 18, 2009
Creator: Alexander, Kristina
Description: This report discusses laws related to the protection of marine mammals when using mid-frequency active sonar including the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), the Endangered Species Act (ESA), the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA). The report discusses each of the laws generally, and then reviews the litigation surrounding the Navy's compliance with these laws in the context of using the sonar for training purposes off California's coast.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Whales and Sonar: Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training

Whales and Sonar: Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training

Date: February 18, 2009
Creator: Alexander, Kristina
Description: This report discusses litigation regarding the use of mid-frequency active sonar training exercises and its effects on marine mammals.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act: A Primer

The Endangered Species Act: A Primer

Date: March 31, 2005
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela; Buck, Eugene H & Corn, M. Lynne
Description: The Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 receives significant congressional attention. The associated power and reach of its comprehensive protection for species identified as endangered or threatened with extinction has ignited concern that there be appropriate bounds on this power. The following discussion provides an overview and background on the various features of the ESA that contribute to its stature and yet spark an ongoing debate over its implementation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act: A Primer

The Endangered Species Act: A Primer

Date: March 31, 2005
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela; Buck, Eugene H & Corn, M. Lynne
Description: The Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 receives significant congressional attention. The associated power and reach of its comprehensive protection for species identified as endangered or threatened with extinction has ignited concern that there be appropriate bounds on this power. The following discussion provides an overview and background on the various features of the ESA that contribute to its stature and yet spark an ongoing debate over its implementation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
National Estuary Program: A Collaborative Approach to Protecting Coastal Water Quality

National Estuary Program: A Collaborative Approach to Protecting Coastal Water Quality

Date: January 12, 2001
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: This report discusses National Estuary Program and is based on 11 of the 28 estuaries that are currently in the National Estuary Program which represent common environmental problems along the nation’s coastline: on the Pacific Coast, the Columbia River, Puget Sound, San Francisco Bay, and Santa Monica Bay; on the Atlantic Coast, Albemarle-Pamlico Sound, Long Island Sound, Narragansett Bay, and Maryland’s coastal bays (excluding Chesapeake Bay); and on the Gulf of Mexico, Charlotte Harbor, Corpus Christi Bay, and Sarasota Bay.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Disposal of Chemical Weapons in the Ocean: Background and Issues for Congress

U.S. Disposal of Chemical Weapons in the Ocean: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: May 24, 2006
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Disposal of Chemical Weapons in the Ocean: Background and Issues for Congress

U.S. Disposal of Chemical Weapons in the Ocean: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: May 24, 2006
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Open Ocean Aquaculture

Open Ocean Aquaculture

Date: March 28, 2006
Creator: Borgatti, Rachel & Buck, Eugene H.
Description: This report discusses open ocean aquaculture, which is defined as the rearing of marine organisms under controlled conditions in exposed, high-energy ocean environments beyond significant coastal influence, is one possible option for meeting increasing consumer demand for marine products and offering new and alternative employment opportunities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Open Ocean Aquaculture

Open Ocean Aquaculture

Date: December 13, 2004
Creator: Borgatti, Rachel & Buck, Eugene H.
Description: This report discusses open ocean aquaculture, which is defined as the rearing of marine organisms under controlled conditions in exposed, high-energy ocean environments beyond significant coastal influence, is one possible option for meeting increasing consumer demand for marine products and offering new and alternative employment opportunities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

Date: June 16, 2006
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: On November 16, 1994, the U.N. Law of the Sea Convention entered into force but without accession by the United States. The major part of the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention had been supported by U.s. Administrations, beginning with President Reagan, as fulfilling U.S. interests in having a comprehensive legal framework relating to competing uses of the world's oceans. However, the United States and many industrialized countries found some of the provisions relating to deep seabed mining in Part XI and Annexes III and IV of the Convention contrary to their interests and would not sign or act to ratify the Convention. A number of questions face the Senate as it considers the Convention/Agreement package, including the following: 1) Does the Agreement sufficiently resolve opposing concerns about the deep seabed mining provisions? 2) What precedent does U.S. acceptance of the Convention/Agreement definition of the common heritage of mankind concept establish? 3) What authority should Congress exert over the expenses of another international organization (the International Seabed Authority)?
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

Date: August 4, 2005
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

Date: January 8, 2003
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

Date: March 19, 2003
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

Date: October 21, 2002
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

Date: June 20, 2003
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

Date: July 29, 2003
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

Date: September 29, 2003
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

Date: February 14, 2001
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

Date: April 1, 2002
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

Date: May 28, 2002
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

Date: August 30, 2002
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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