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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
A Primer on the Reviewability of Agency Delay and Enforcement Discretion

A Primer on the Reviewability of Agency Delay and Enforcement Discretion

Date: September 4, 2014
Creator: Shedd, Daniel T. & Garvey, Todd
Description: This report discusses the general legal principles applied in determining whether administrative delays are reviewable in court in these two different contexts and then address whether the procedures outlined in the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) are applicable to these delays.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Take Care Clause and Executive Discretion in the Enforcement of Law

The Take Care Clause and Executive Discretion in the Enforcement of Law

Date: September 4, 2014
Creator: Garvey, Todd
Description: This report addresses the President's general obligation to "take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed." The report then discusses the limited role the judicial branch has traditionally adopted in reviewing discretionary enforcement decisions, including the decision to initiate a criminal prosecution or an administrative enforcement action. The report concludes with a discussion of Congress's authority to restrict executive discretion in the enforcement of federal law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Doctrine of Constitutional Avoidance: A Legal Overview

The Doctrine of Constitutional Avoidance: A Legal Overview

Date: September 2, 2014
Creator: Nolan, Andrew
Description: This report discusses select issues regarding judicial review, and offers some contemporary views on the Ashwander Doctrine, under which the Supreme Court avoids ruling decisively in cases that it deems able to be resolved outside of the court, non-constitutionally (Constitutional Avoidance).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Special Immigrant Juveniles: In Brief

Special Immigrant Juveniles: In Brief

Date: August 29, 2014
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report provides a brief explanation of the statutory basis of special immigrant juvenile (SIJ) status and how it has evolved. It also presents statistics on the number of children who have applied for and received SIJ status since FY2005. The report concludes with a discussion of the applicability of SIJ status for unaccompanied alien children.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Can Body Worn Cameras Serve as a Deterrent to Police Misconduct?

Can Body Worn Cameras Serve as a Deterrent to Police Misconduct?

Date: August 28, 2014
Creator: James, Nathan
Description: This report discusses various issues regarding body worn cameras (BWCs), including the potential merits, concerns, and financial costs of use. The report also briefly states a possible method for allotting federal funds to help law enforcement agencies purchase BWCs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bills of Attainder: The Constitutional Implications of Congress Legislating Narrowly

Bills of Attainder: The Constitutional Implications of Congress Legislating Narrowly

Date: August 26, 2014
Creator: Thomas, Kenneth R.
Description: This report discusses congressional bills of attainder, defined by the Supreme Court as "law[s] that legislatively determine guilt and inflict punishment upon an identifiable individual without provision of the protections of a judicial trial." The report specifically examines the two main criteria courts use to determine whether legislation is a bill of attainder: specificity and punishment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The "Militarization" of Law Enforcement and the Department of Defense's "1033 Program

The "Militarization" of Law Enforcement and the Department of Defense's "1033 Program

Date: August 20, 2014
Creator: James, Nathan & Else, Daniel H.
Description: This report discusses the response of SWAT teams to extraordinary cases that has raised questions about the so called "militarization" of law enforcement.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: August 19, 2014
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the recent development regarding the negotiations with Iran about its nuclear program. It provides background information on Iranian nuclear program and debates the November 24 Joint Plan of Action Elements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Securities Fraud Class Action Certification: Halliburton Co. v. Erica P. John Fund, Inc.

Securities Fraud Class Action Certification: Halliburton Co. v. Erica P. John Fund, Inc.

Date: August 15, 2014
Creator: Seitzinger, Michael V.
Description: This report discusses requirements for securities fraud class action certification. The report also specifically examines each of the decisions made in the Halliburton cases, which proceeded through two complete rounds in federal district court, court of appeals, and the Supreme Court.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S.-EU Cooperation on Ukraine and Russia

U.S.-EU Cooperation on Ukraine and Russia

Date: August 7, 2014
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Mix, Derek E.
Description: This report examines the U.S. and EU reactions to the crisis in Ukraine, focusing on the EU's hesitation to issue severe sanctions on par with the U.S. prior to the crash of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17. The report discusses the EU's new, wider-ranging sanctions in the wake of MH17 and its implications on U.S.-EU relations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department