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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The 2002 Farm Bill: Overview and Status

The 2002 Farm Bill: Overview and Status

Date: June 3, 2002
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S. & Womach, Jasper
Description: This report discusses the provisions of the 1996 farm bill, which was due to expire in 2002 but was extended (P.L. 107-171) for an additional 6 years on May 13, 2002.
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The 2002 Farm Bill: Overview and Status

The 2002 Farm Bill: Overview and Status

Date: September 3, 2002
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S. & Womach, Jasper
Description: This report discusses the provisions of the 1996 farm bill, which was due to expire in 2002 but was extended for an additional 6 years on May 13, 2002 by President Bush (P.L. 107-171). The new law is called the "Farm Security and Rural Investment Act (FSRIA) of 2002. The new law generally supersedes the previous omnibus farm bill, the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform (FAIR) Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-127). The new farm law has attracted widespread criticism both in the U.S. and abroad. This report discusses these criticisms as well as the defenses of the law's proponents.
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Resource Conservation Title: Comparison of Current Law with Farm Bills Passed by the House and Senate

Resource Conservation Title: Comparison of Current Law with Farm Bills Passed by the House and Senate

Date: February 28, 2002
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (PACA)

The Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (PACA)

Date: October 26, 1999
Creator: Branaman, Brenda
Description: None
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Agriculture and the 106th Congress: A Summary of Major Issues

Agriculture and the 106th Congress: A Summary of Major Issues

Date: December 15, 2000
Creator: Jones, Jean Yavis
Description: Most congressional interest in agriculture in the 106th Congress was focused on persistent low prices for major commodities and proposals to redress declining farm income. Six emergency farm aid bills were approved, increasing agricultural spending by nearly $27 billion for fiscal years 1999-2001. These bills provided disaster relief along with short term “market loss payments”to farmers to shore up farm income. Some longer term changes also were enacted as part of emergency farm legislation, which this report discusses in brief.
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Conservation Reserve Payments and Self-Employment Taxes

Conservation Reserve Payments and Self-Employment Taxes

Date: May 1, 2000
Creator: Morris, Marie B
Description: Farmers enrolling their land in the Department of Agriculture's Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) receive payments for refraining from farming their property and for engaging in certain conservation practices mandated by the Department of Agriculture. These payments are described in the contract with the Department of Agriculture as "rental payments." Farmers would like to treat the income as "rental income" because it would not be subject to self-employment taxes, but the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) insists that under certain conditions, the payments are income from the trade or business of farming and thus subject to self-employment taxes.
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Farm "Counter-Cyclical Assistance"

Farm "Counter-Cyclical Assistance"

Date: March 7, 2002
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S & Womach, Jasper
Description: This report discusses the reauthorization of major farm income and commodity price support programs that expire after crop year 2002. Many agricultural interests expect that a new “counter-cyclical assistance” program will be an integral component of future farm policy. The intent of counter-cyclical assistance is to provide more government support when farm prices and/or incomes decline, and less support when they improve.
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Farm "Counter-Cyclical Assistance"

Farm "Counter-Cyclical Assistance"

Date: May 31, 2002
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S & Womach, Jasper
Description: This report discusses recently approved legislation reauthorizing major farm income and commodity price support programs through crop year 2007. This legislation includes new “counter-cyclical assistance” programs for grains, cotton, oilseeds, peanuts, and milk. The intent of counter-cyclical assistance is to provide more government support when farm prices and/or incomes decline, and less support when they improve. In fact, farmers have, for many years, been eligible for various forms of counter-cyclical assistance. At issue has been the need for, and potential impacts of, another counter-cyclical program.
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Farm Bill Trade and Food Aid Provisions

Farm Bill Trade and Food Aid Provisions

Date: May 8, 2002
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report discusses the trade provisions of omnibus farm legislation, passed in May 2002. The measure includes a trade title reauthorizing, through 2007, the major foreign food aid and agricultural export programs. It also contains other provisions affecting agricultural trade, including new country-of-origin labeling requirements for meat, seafood, and produce; and increased domestic farm subsidies with possible implications for U.S. trade relations.
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Farm Commodity Payment Limits: Comparison of Proposals

Farm Commodity Payment Limits: Comparison of Proposals

Date: April 26, 2002
Creator: Womach, Jasper
Description: This report discusses U.S. policy regard farm commodities. Greater public awareness of the size of commodity program payments reaching a comparatively small number of very large farms has focused the attention of Congress on payment limits. Limits on commodity program payments have been imposed since 1970. As part of the emergency economic assistance packages enacted each of the past three years, the payment limits have been doubled. In addition, a mechanism has been developed that allows farms to circumvent the limit on loan deficiency payments, namely commodity certificates
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The 2002 Farm Law at a Glance

The 2002 Farm Law at a Glance

Date: June 7, 2002
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Description: On May 13, 2002, President Bush signed the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act (FSRIA) of 2002 into law (P.L. 107-171). FSRIA is the latest in a long line of omnibus, multi-year farm bills. The 2002 law is the successor to the last omnibus measure, the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-127). This report, to be updated if events warrant, provides selected highlights.
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Air Quality: Impacts of Trip Reduction Programs on States and Affected Employers

Air Quality: Impacts of Trip Reduction Programs on States and Affected Employers

Date: August 18, 1993
Creator: Flechtner, Maura K & Mayer, Susan L
Description: This report discusses employer trip reduction (ETR) programs, which would require large employers to implement certain transportation control measures as part of a national effort to combat air pollution, largely as a direct result of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.
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California Air Quality FIP - A Fact Sheet

California Air Quality FIP - A Fact Sheet

Date: April 13, 1995
Creator: Mayer, Susan L
Description: On April 10, 1995, President Clinton signed P.L. 104-6, which contained a provision that rescinds the Federal air quality implementation plan (FIP) for the South Coast, Ventura, and Sacramento areas of California.(1) As a result, the FIP issued by EPA has no further force and effect, and California will continue pursuing approval of its own State implementation plan (SIP) in lieu of the FIP. Promulgation of the FIP was perceived by some within the State as having a detrimental effect on California's industries and economy resulting from costly and burdensome air pollution control measures contained in the plan.
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Implementing Acid Rain Legislation

Implementing Acid Rain Legislation

Date: November 15, 1994
Creator: Parker, Larry
Description: This report discusses the broad-ranging provisions in Title IV of The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549), which raise myriad implementation issues, particularly with respect to the system of tradable "allowances."
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Implementing Acid Rain Legislation

Implementing Acid Rain Legislation

Date: April 5, 1995
Creator: Parker, Larry
Description: This report discusses the broad-ranging provisions in Title IV of The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549), which raise myriad implementation issues, particularly with respect to the system of tradable "allowances."
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Global Climate Change Policy: Domestic Early Action Credits

Global Climate Change Policy: Domestic Early Action Credits

Date: July 23, 1999
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Description: This report discusses the global climate change policy and proposals to allow credit for early actions to reduce emissions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality: Multi-Pollutant Legislation

Air Quality: Multi-Pollutant Legislation

Date: August 1, 2002
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Description: One approach being proposed to more cost-effectively achieve national air quality goals is a "multi-pollutant" strategy -- a framework based on a consistent set of emissions caps, implemented through emissions trading. This report discusses this strategy and related legislation.
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Air Quality: Multi-Pollutant Legislation

Air Quality: Multi-Pollutant Legislation

Date: October 22, 2002
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Description: One approach being proposed to more cost-effectively achieve national air quality goals is a "multi-pollutant" strategy -- a framework based on a consistent set of emissions caps, implemented through emissions trading. This report discusses this strategy and related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Climate Change Legislation in the 108th Congress

Climate Change Legislation in the 108th Congress

Date: January 6, 2005
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D & Powers, Kyna
Description: Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been an issue in the 108th Congress, as they have been over the past decade. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research (H.R. 1578 and S. 1164) to comprehensive emissions cap and trading programs for all six greenhouse gases (S. 139 and H.R. 4067). This report briefly discusses basic concepts on which these bills are based, and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, GHG reporting and registries, and cap and trade programs.
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The Listing of a Species: Legal Definition and Biological Realities

The Listing of a Species: Legal Definition and Biological Realities

Date: December 15, 1992
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: None
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The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species: Its Past and Future

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species: Its Past and Future

Date: August 24, 1994
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: This report discusses the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). It is divided into six sections: Introduction, Background, CITES and the Endangered Species Act, Implementation, Upcoming Events, and Appendices.
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Brief Summaries of Federal Animal Protection Statutes

Brief Summaries of Federal Animal Protection Statutes

Date: November 30, 1998
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: This report contains brief summaries of federal animal protection statutes, listed alphabetically. It does not include treaties, although it does include statutes enacted to implement treaties. It includes statutes concerning animals that are not entirely, or not at all, animal protection statutes. For example, it includes a statute authorizing the eradication of predators, because one of the statute's purposes is to protect domestic and "game, animals; and it includes statutes to conserve fish, although their ultimate purpose may not be for the fishes' benefit. It also includes statutes that allow the disabled to use service animals, and even includes statutes aimed at acts of animal rights advocates (the Animal Enterprise Protection Act of 1992, and the Recreational Hunting Safety and Preservation Act of 1994).
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Marine Mammal Protection Act Amendments of 1994

Marine Mammal Protection Act Amendments of 1994

Date: September 28, 1994
Creator: Buck, Eugene H
Description: This report summarizes provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act Amendments of 1994 and outlines this Act's implementation schedule for use by Members of Congress and their staff.
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Habitat Modification and the Endangered Species Act: The Sweet Home Decision

Habitat Modification and the Endangered Species Act: The Sweet Home Decision

Date: July 6, 1995
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses the Endangered Species Act, the regulation of the Fish and Wildlife Service defining "harm" for purposes of the "take" prohibitions of the Endangered Species Act.
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