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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Agreements to Promote Fishery Conservation and Management in International Waters
Declining fish populations threaten an important food source. Natural catastrophes, pollution, habitat destruction, and overfishing contribute to the depletion of fish stocks. Overexploitation of fishery resources often occurs when management allows expanding and increasingly efficient fishing fleets to continue harvesting dwindling supplies. Although prevalent, overexploitation is not universal and its extent varies among areas, species, and fisheries. This report discusses the issue of overfishing and its possible consequences, as well as domestic and international efforts to combat overfishing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs341/
State Investment Tax Credits, the Commerce Clause, and Cuno v. DaimlerChrysler
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Marine Dead Zones: Understanding the Problem
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Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 109th Congress
This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to approve energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Current law forbids energy leasing in the Refuge. This report addresses several legislative options on the issue, as well as policymakers' arguments for and against development, especially in the wake of increasing terrorism since 2000-2001. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7408/
Affirmative Action: Justice O'Connor's Opinions
An examination of Justice O’Connor’s opinions reveals a gradual shift in perspective regarding the legal and constitutional standards to be applied in evaluating governmental affirmative action efforts, and the manner of their application in various legal and factual settings. This report briefly surveys decisions of retiring Justice Sandra Day O’Connor in affirmative action cases, an area where her opinions have frequently determined the outcome. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7762/
The Law of Church and State: Selected Opinions of Justice O'Connor
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Regulatory Waivers and Extensions Pursuant to Hurricane Katrina
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The Federal Migrant Education Program as Amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
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Student Loans and FY2006 Budget Reconciliation
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The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment
The proposed acquisition of major operations in six major U.S. ports by Dubai Ports World and of Unocal by the China National Offshore Oil Corporation sparked intense concerns among some Members of Congress and the public and has reignited the debate over what role foreign acquisitions play in U.S. national security. The United States actively promotes internationally the national treatment of foreign firms. Several Members of Congress have introduced various measures during the 2nd Session of the 109th Congress that can be grouped into four major areas: those that deal specifically with the proposed Dubai Ports World acquisition; those that focus more generally on foreign ownership of U.S. ports; those that would amend the CFIUS process; and those that would amend the Exon-Florio process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7748/
Mandates Information Act: Implications for Congressional Action on Legislation Containing Private Sector Mandates
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The Family and Medical Leave Act: Background and U.S. Supreme Court Cases
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Regulatory Waivers and Extensions Pursuant to Hurricane Katrina
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Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2005
This report provides background information on each defense-related environmental program, discusses key funding issues, and examines relevant provisions in authorization legislation and appropriations for FY2005. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7849/
Pension Issues Cloud Postal Reform Debate
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Defining Cable Broadband Internet Access Service: Background and Analysis of the Supreme Court's Brand X Decision
This report provides an overview of the regulatory actions leading up to and an analysis of the Supreme Court’s decision in National Cable & Telecommunications Association v. Brand X Internet Services. It also provides a discussion of the possible legal and economic implications of the Court’s decision. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7795/
Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: EPA's Air Compliance Agreement
In an effort to collect scientifically credible data regarding the effect of animal agriculture on water resources (specifically animal waste and emissons from animal feeding operations (AFO), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in January 2005 announced the Air Compliance Agreement. The agreement is intended to produce air quality monitoring data on AFO emissions during a two-year study, while at the same time protecting participants through a “safe harbor” from liability under certain provisions of federal environmental laws. This report discusses the agreement and the perspectives of both its supporters and opponents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7791/
Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law
This report provides background on foreign policy sanctions and the events that might necessitate their use, criteria to consider when determining if sanctions are appropriate, approaches that might be effective, and aspects of the use of sanctions that are sometimes overlooked or not considered fully. The report also provides an uncomplicated map of where sanctions policies and options currently may be found in U.S. law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs730/
Security and Freedom Ensured Act (SAFE Act)(H.R. 1526) and Security and Freedom Enhancement Act (SAFE Act)(S. 737): Section by Section Analysis
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Rumsfeld v. FAIR:
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Influenza Antiviral Drugs and Patent Law Issues
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Trio and GEAR UP Programs: Status and Issues
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Taxpayer Protections in the Proposed IRS Restructuring Act: Burden of Proof
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Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding
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Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding
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Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding
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Personnel Management Flexibility for the Internal Revenue Service: P.L. 105-206
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Davis-Bacon Suspension and Its Legislative Aftermath
During the last week of August 2005, Hurricane Katrina gathered strength in the Atlantic and moved against the gulf states. On September 8, 2005, amid the devastation left in Katrina’s wake, President George W. Bush suspended the Davis-Bacon Act as it applies to certain jurisdictions in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. Although the President has the authority, under Section 6 of the Act, to render such suspensions during a national emergency, that authority has rarely been utilized.1 This report analyzes the legislative aftermath of the suspension. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7543/
IRS Reform: Innocent Spouse Rule
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Safe Harbor for Preclinical Use of Patented Inventions in Drug Research and Development:
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The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act: A Legal Overview
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Postal Reform Bills: A Side-by-Side Comparison of H.R. 22 and S. 662
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Summary of State Laws on the Issuance of Driver's Licenses
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Credit Union Regulatory Improvements Act of 2005 (CURIA)
On May 12, 2005, regulatory modernization legislation for credit unions was introduced as H.R. 2317. The three titles of the Credit Union Regulatory Improvements Act (CURIA) would provide regulatory changes requested by credit union industry advocates. These changes would provide supervisory flexibility to the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA), the federal regulator for the credit union industry, enhance the ability of credit unions to provide loans to their members, and ease credit union regulatory burdens. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7754/
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection
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Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program
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Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program
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The New Vacancies Act: Congress Acts to Protect the Senate's Confirmation Prerogative
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Rural Education: Legislative Initiatives
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Postal Reform Bills: A Side-by-Side Comparison of H.R. 22 and S. 662
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Copyright Protection of Digital Television: The "Broadcast Flag"
This report addresses the adoption of a “broadcast flag” system by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to protect digital television (DTV) broadcasts from unauthorized redistribution. The report also addresses the recent decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit reversing and vacating the FCC’s broadcast flag report and order. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7772/
Postal Reform Bills: A Side-by-Side Comparison of H.R. 22 and S. 662
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The Abandoned Mine Land Fund: Grants Distribution and Issues
The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA, P.L. 95-87), enacted in 1977, established reclamation standards for all coal surface mining operations, and for the surface effects of underground mining. It also established the Abandoned Mine Land (AML) program to promote the reclamation of sites mined and abandoned prior to the enactment of SMCRA. To finance reclamation of abandoned mine sites, the legislation established fees on coal production. These collections are divided into federal and state shares; subject to annual appropriation, AML funds are distributed annually to states with approved reclamation programs. This report describes the distribution of these funds and the various issues that arise from said distribution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs398/
The SAFE Acts of 2005: H.R. 1526 and S. 737--A Sketch
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Homeland Security: A Topical Comparison of H.R. 5710 with H.R. 5005
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Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention: Federal Mandates for Local Government
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Rehabilitation Act of 1973: 109th Congress Legislation and FY2006 Budget Request
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Risk-Based Funding in Homeland Security Grant Legislation: Analysis of Issues for the 109th Congress
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Overview and Analysis of Senate Amendment Concerning Interrogation of Detainees
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Gonzales vs. Oregon
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