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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Nominations to the Supreme Court During Years of Divided and Unified Party Government

Nominations to the Supreme Court During Years of Divided and Unified Party Government

Date: March 16, 2016
Creator: McMillion, Barry J.
Description: This report provides data and analysis related to nominations made to the Supreme Court during years of unified and divided party government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Quality Issues in the 110th Congress: Oversight and Implementation

Water Quality Issues in the 110th Congress: Oversight and Implementation

Date: March 15, 2007
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses issues surrounding the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972 and programs set up to meet the water quality standards that it outlined. The report focuses specifically on the legislative issues for the 110th Congress in relation to the CWA. It also includes a brief comparison of the expected appropriations for FY2007 and FY2008.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: An Overview of Congressional Action

Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: An Overview of Congressional Action

Date: January 9, 2006
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Description: This report discusses the difficulty of assessing the impact of environmental requirements on military readiness, broader exemptions for military activities that Congress has enacted, and DOD's request for additional exemptions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Justice Antonin Scalia: His Jurisprudence and His Impact on the Court

Justice Antonin Scalia: His Jurisprudence and His Impact on the Court

Date: March 18, 2016
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.; Murrill, Brandon J. & Nolan, Andrew
Description: This report discusses Justice Scalia's jurisprudence on key areas of law, as well as how that jurisprudence could be seen to have influenced the Court's approach to these subject matters.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Freedom of Information Act Legislation in the 114th Congress: Issue Summary and Side-by-Side Analysis

Freedom of Information Act Legislation in the 114th Congress: Issue Summary and Side-by-Side Analysis

Date: April 21, 2016
Creator: Ginsberg, Wendy
Description: This report provides a side-by-side comparison of two bills relevant to the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), using the versions that have passed each of their originating congressional chambers. The report also provides context related to bill amendments and language additions that occurred between bill versions, when applicable. Finally, the report provides analysis of certain provisions of the bills.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ocean Dumping Act: A Summary of the Law

Ocean Dumping Act: A Summary of the Law

Date: December 13, 2006
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report presents a summary of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532), describing the essence of the statute. The law has two basic aims: to regulate intentional ocean disposal of materials, and to authorize related research.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Western Water Resource Issues

Western Water Resource Issues

Date: October 18, 2006
Creator: Cody, Betsy A. & Sheikh, Pervaze A.
Description: This report discusses the debate over western water resources, which revolves around the issue of how best to plan for and manage the use of this renewable, yet sometimes scarce and increasingly sought after, resource.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The National Environmental Policy Act: Streamlining NEPA

The National Environmental Policy Act: Streamlining NEPA

Date: February 13, 2006
Creator: Luther, Linda
Description: This report discusses elements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA; 42 U.S.C. §§ 4321, et seq.) relevant to streamlining, issues associated with determining project delays attributed to NEPA, common streamlining methods, and recently proposed and enacted legislative and administrative streamlining activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Sugar Program Fundamentals

U.S. Sugar Program Fundamentals

Date: April 6, 2016
Creator: McMinimy, Mark A.
Description: This report discusses the U.S. sugar program, which is singular among major agricultural commodity programs in that it combines a floor price guarantee with a supply management structure that encompasses both domestic production for human use and sugar imports.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pharmaceutical Patent Litigation Settlements: Implications for Competition and Innovation

Pharmaceutical Patent Litigation Settlements: Implications for Competition and Innovation

Date: January 20, 2011
Creator: Thomas, John R.
Description: This report introduces and analyzes innovation policy issues concerning pharmaceutical patent litigation settlements, including pharmaceutical patent litigation procedures under the Hatch-Waxman Act, the concept of reverse payment settlements, the status of reverse payment settlements under the antitrust laws, and congressional issues and alternatives.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Journalists’ Privilege: Overview of the Law and Legislation in the 109th and 110th Congresses

Journalists’ Privilege: Overview of the Law and Legislation in the 109th and 110th Congresses

Date: September 28, 2007
Creator: Cohen, Henry & Ann Ruane, Kathleen
Description: This report examines laws pertaining to journalists' privilege. Most states afford journalists some protection from compelled release of their confidential sources. The question remains, however, as to whether a concomitant federal privilege exists. The Supreme Court has addressed the issue of journalists’ privilege under the First Amendment only once; in Branzburg v. Hayes, it left open the question of whether the First Amendment provides journalists with any privilege.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Statutory Modifications of the Application of NEPA

Statutory Modifications of the Application of NEPA

Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: From time to time, Congress has considered the operation of the National Environmental Policy Act. While Congress has amended the statute itself only twice since its enactment, Congress has often enacted provisions that modify the application of the Act or specify the extent of the documents that need be prepared in particular instances or contexts. This report collects and lists examples of such provisions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Sanctions on Burma

U.S. Sanctions on Burma

Date: October 19, 2012
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Description: This report provides a brief history of U.S. policy towards Burma and the development of U.S. sanctions, a topical summary of those sanctions, and an examination of additional sanctions that have been considered, but not enacted, by Congress, or that could be imposed under existing law or executive orders. The report concludes with a discussion of options for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: House and Senate Amendments to Juvenile Justice Legislation

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: House and Senate Amendments to Juvenile Justice Legislation

Date: August 20, 1999
Creator: Jones, Nancy L.
Description: This report discusses legislative issues regarding the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which provides federal funds to the states to assist them in providing an education for children with disabilities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Lobbying Disclosure and Ethics Proposals Related to Lobbying Introduced in the 109th Congress: A Comparative Analysis

Lobbying Disclosure and Ethics Proposals Related to Lobbying Introduced in the 109th Congress: A Comparative Analysis

Date: March 23, 2006
Creator: Petersen, R. Eric
Description: This report provides context, comparison, discussion, and analysis of the issues addressed in the legislative proposals that have been introduced in the 109th Congress to address lobbying disclosure and related laws and congressional rules.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
FDA’s Authority to Ensure That Drugs Prescribed to Children Are Safe and Effective

FDA’s Authority to Ensure That Drugs Prescribed to Children Are Safe and Effective

Date: December 2, 2008
Creator: Thaul, Susan
Description: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved for adult use many drugs never tested in children. Yet clinicians often prescribe them for children believing that the safety and effectiveness demonstrated with adults probably reasonably transfers to younger patients. The data show that this is not always true. To encourage industry to develop drugs and medical devices for pediatric use, Congress has established three programs. The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA, P.L. 110-85) reauthorized and strengthened two laws addressing drugs—the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA) of 2002 and the Pediatric Research Equity Act (PREA) of 2003—and enacted a new law addressing devices—the Pediatric Medical Device Safety and Improvement Act (PMDSIA) of 2007. The historical approach of this report allows an understanding of how and why Congress took these steps.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The World Drug Problem: UNGA Convenes for a Special Session

The World Drug Problem: UNGA Convenes for a Special Session

Date: April 20, 2016
Creator: Rosen, Liana W.
Description: This report briefly discusses the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), which has convened in New York for a special session on "The World Drug Problem." It is the third time the UNGA will convene such a session on global drug issues. Previous special sessions on drugs were held in 1990 and 1998.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act of 2016 (S. 524): Comparison of Senate- and House-Passed Versions

The Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act of 2016 (S. 524): Comparison of Senate- and House-Passed Versions

Date: May 23, 2016
Creator: Bagalman, Erin & Sacco, Lisa N.
Description: This report discusses selected differences and similarities between the Senate- and House-passed versions of the Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act of 2016 (CARA; S. 524), which aims to address the problem of opioid addiction in the United States. The two versions of the bill differ substantially. The scope of the differences may be illustrated by their structures: The Senate bill has 28 sections organized in 8 titles, whereas the House bill has 69 sections organized in 18 titles.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EPA Policies Concerning Integrated Planning and Affordability of Water Infrastructure

EPA Policies Concerning Integrated Planning and Affordability of Water Infrastructure

Date: May 2, 2016
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report examines two recent initiatives by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in which the agency works with states to develop and implement new approaches for water quality goals that will be more cost-effective and address the most pressing water infrastructure problems first. The examples include an integrated planning policy and a framework policy for assessing a community's financial capability to meet objectives and requirements of the Clean Water Act (CWA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legislative Options for Financing Water Infrastructure

Legislative Options for Financing Water Infrastructure

Date: June 1, 2016
Creator: Copeland, Claudia; Maguire, Steven & Mallett, William J.
Description: This report discusses several options considered by Congress to address the financing needs of local communities for wastewater and drinking water infrastructure projects and to decrease or close the gap between available funds and projected needs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 108th Congress

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 108th Congress

Date: November 1, 2004
Creator: Corn, M. L.; Gelb, Bernard A. & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses one major element of the energy debate in the 108th Congress, which has been whether to approve energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in northeastern Alaska, and if so, under what conditions, or whether to continue to prohibit development to protect the area's biological resources. The Refuge is an area rich in fauna, flora, and commercial oil potential. Current law forbids energy leasing in the Refuge.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Department of the Interior's Final Rule on Offshore Well Control

The Department of the Interior's Final Rule on Offshore Well Control

Date: June 16, 2016
Creator: Comay, Laura B.
Description: This report discusses regulations regarding blowout preventer systems and well control for oil and gas operations on the U.S. outer continental shelf (81 Fed. Reg. 25887). The regulations aim to reduce the risk of an offshore oil or gas blowout that could jeopardize human safety and harm the environment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Safe Drinking Water Act: Implementation and Issues

Safe Drinking Water Act: Implementation and Issues

Date: December 8, 2004
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report discusses key drinking water issues in the 108th Congress involving water infrastructure funding and problems caused by specific contaminants, such as the gasoline additive methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), perchlorate, and lead in drinking water. Congress last reauthorized the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1996, and although funding authority for most SDWA programs expired in FY2003, broad reauthorization efforts were not pursued as EPA, states, and water utilities continued implementing the 1996 amendments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legislative Options for Financing Water Infrastructure

Legislative Options for Financing Water Infrastructure

Date: April 27, 2016
Creator: Copeland, Claudia; Maguire, Steven & Mallett, William J.
Description: This report discusses several options considered by Congress to address the financing needs of local communities for wastewater and drinking water infrastructure projects and to decrease or close the gap between available funds and projected needs. It provides an overview of six options that are reflected in recent legislative proposals, including their budgetary implications.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department