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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement

Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement

Date: January 6, 2012
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P. & Finklea, Kristin M.
Description: In the last two decades, organized crime has grown more complex, posing evolving challenges for U.S. federal law enforcement. These criminals have transformed their operations in ways that broaden their reach and make it harder for law enforcement to combat them. They have adopted more-networked structural models, internationalized their operations, and grown more tech savvy. They are a significant challenge to U.S. law enforcement. There still is no single agency charged with investigating organized crime in the way the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has been designated the lead investigative agency for terrorism. Further, resources to tackle this issue are divided among many federal agencies. As such, Congress may exert its oversight authority regarding the federal coordination of organized crime investigations via the 2011 strategy. Policymakers may also debate the efficacy of current resources appropriated to combat organized crime.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Origination Clause of the U.S. Constitution: Interpretation and Enforcement

The Origination Clause of the U.S. Constitution: Interpretation and Enforcement

Date: May 6, 2002
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Origination Clause of the U.S. Constitution: Interpretation and Enforcement

The Origination Clause of the U.S. Constitution: Interpretation and Enforcement

Date: March 15, 2011
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Description: Article I, Section 7, clause 1 of the U.S. Constitution is known as the Origination Clause because it provides that "All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives." The meaning and application of this clause has evolved through practice and precedent since the Constitution was drafted. The Constitution does not provide specific guidelines as to what constitutes a "bill for raising revenue." This report analyzes congressional and court precedents regarding that constitutes such a bill. Second, this report describes the various ways in which the Origination Clause has been enforced. Finally, this report looks at the application of the Origination Clause to other types of legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Origination Clause of the U.S. Constitution: Interpretation and Enforcement

The Origination Clause of the U.S. Constitution: Interpretation and Enforcement

Date: May 10, 2002
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Description: This report analyzes congressional and court precedents regarding bills under Article I, Section 7, clause 1 of the U.S. Constitution (known as the Origination Clause). It also describes the various ways in which the Origination Clause has been enforced and looks at the application of the Clause to other types of legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Outer Continental Shelf: Debate Over Oil and Gas Leasing and Revenue Sharing

Outer Continental Shelf: Debate Over Oil and Gas Leasing and Revenue Sharing

Date: January 22, 2008
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Description: Oil and gas leasing in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) has been an important issue in the debate over energy security and domestic energy resources. The Department of the Interior (DOI) released a comprehensive inventory of OCS resources in February 2006 that estimated reserves of 8.5 billion barrels of oil and 29.3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. Congress has imposed moratoria of the OCS since 1982 through the annual Interior appropriation bills. Proponents of the moratoria contend that offshore drilling would pose unacceptable environmental risks and threaten coastal tourism industries. This report analyzes this issue in-depth, including budgetary information and relevant legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Outer Continental Shelf: Debate Over Oil and Gas Leasing and Revenue Sharing

Outer Continental Shelf: Debate Over Oil and Gas Leasing and Revenue Sharing

Date: July 15, 2008
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Description: Oil and gas leasing in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) has been an important issue in the debate over energy security and domestic energy resources. The Department of the Interior (DOI) released a comprehensive inventory of OCS resources in February 2006 that estimated reserves of 8.5 billion barrels of oil and 29.3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. Congress has imposed moratoria of the OCS since 1982 through the annual Interior appropriation bills. Proponents of the moratoria contend that offshore drilling would pose unacceptable environmental risks and threaten coastal tourism industries. This report analyzes this issue in-depth, including budgetary information and relevant legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Outer Continental Shelf Leasing: Side-by-Side Comparison of Five Legislative Proposals

Outer Continental Shelf Leasing: Side-by-Side Comparison of Five Legislative Proposals

Date: September 16, 2008
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Description: This report provides a side-by-side comparison of three bills and two proposals, each of which addresses oil and gas development in the outer continental shelf (OCS).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Outer Continental Shelf Moratoria on Oil and Gas Development

Outer Continental Shelf Moratoria on Oil and Gas Development

Date: June 15, 2010
Creator: Hagerty, Curry L.
Description: This report discusses moratoria measures for the outer continental shelf (OCS) which establish bans or restrictions on oil and gas exploration and development in federal ocean areas. It includes a background of offshore oil and gas development, the sources of U.S. moratorium policy, the background of ocean governance, U.S. moratoria in international areas, and related issues for congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Outer Continental Shelf Moratoria on Oil and Gas Development

Outer Continental Shelf Moratoria on Oil and Gas Development

Date: April 7, 2010
Creator: Hagerty, Curry L.
Description: This report discusses moratoria measures for the outer continental shelf (OCS) which establish bans or restrictions on oil and gas exploration and development in federal ocean areas. It includes a background of offshore oil and gas development, the sources of U.S. moratorium policy, the background of ocean governance, U.S. moratoria in international areas, and related issues for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Outer Continental Shelf Moratoria on Oil and Gas Development

Outer Continental Shelf Moratoria on Oil and Gas Development

Date: March 23, 2010
Creator: Hagerty, Curry L.
Description: This report discusses moratoria measures for the outer continental shelf (OCS) which establish bans or restrictions on oil and gas exploration and development in federal ocean areas. It includes a background of offshore oil and gas development, the sources of U.S. moratorium policy, the background of ocean governance, U.S. moratoria in international areas, and related issues for congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Outer Continental Shelf Moratoria on Oil and Gas Development

Outer Continental Shelf Moratoria on Oil and Gas Development

Date: March 23, 2011
Creator: Hagerty, Curry L.
Description: This report discusses moratoria measures for the outer continental shelf (OCS) which establish bans or restrictions on oil and gas exploration and development in federal ocean areas. It includes a background of offshore oil and gas development, the sources of U.S. moratorium policy, the background of ocean governance, U.S. moratoria in international areas, and related issues for congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Outer Continental Shelf Moratoria on Oil and Gas Development

Outer Continental Shelf Moratoria on Oil and Gas Development

Date: May 6, 2011
Creator: Hagerty, Curry L.
Description: Moratoria measures for the outer continental shelf (OCS) establish bans or restrictions on oil and gas exploration and development in federal ocean areas. With some exceptions for marine sanctuaries and monuments, no portion of the federal OCS has a permanent moratorium on oil and gas leasing and development. While some areas are under temporary development bans, such as suspensions or moratoria directed by either legislative or executive powers, most of the OCS is free of such restrictions and is considered permissible for offshore leasing activity.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Overview and Analysis of Senate Amendment Concerning Interrogation of Detainees

Overview and Analysis of Senate Amendment Concerning Interrogation of Detainees

Date: November 2, 2005
Creator: Wood, Lee
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Overview of EPA and the Army Corps’ Rule to Define “Waters of the United States”

Overview of EPA and the Army Corps’ Rule to Define “Waters of the United States”

Date: June 3, 2015
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report describes the revised rule of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) which defines the scope of waters protected under the Clean Water Act (CWA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Overview of Immigration Issues in the 112th Congress

Overview of Immigration Issues in the 112th Congress

Date: March 21, 2011
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report synthesizes immigration issues as a multi-tiered debate. It breaks down the U.S. immigration law and policy into key elements: border control and visa security; legal immigration; documentation and verification; interior immigration enforcement; integration, status, and benefits; and refugees and other humanitarian populations. This report also delineates the debate in the 112th Congress for a range of issues, including border security, criminal aliens, and worksite enforcement.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Overview of Immigration Issues in the 112th Congress

Overview of Immigration Issues in the 112th Congress

Date: January 12, 2012
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report synthesizes immigration issues as a multi-tiered debate. It breaks down the U.S. immigration law and policy into key elements: border control and visa security; legal immigration; documentation and verification; interior immigration enforcement; integration, status, and benefits; and refugees and other humanitarian populations. This report also delineates the debate in the 112th Congress for a range of issues, including border security, criminal aliens, and worksite enforcement.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Overview of Judicial Review of Immigration Matters

An Overview of Judicial Review of Immigration Matters

Date: September 11, 2013
Creator: Mikyung Lee, Margaret
Description: This report will summarize judicial review for immigration matters, including visa denials and revocations; removal orders and detention; naturalization delays, denials, and revocations; expatriation; and legalization denials. Administrative adjudications such as removal proceedings or determination of immigration benefits such as naturalization are beyond the scope of this report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Overview of NEPA Requirements

Overview of NEPA Requirements

Date: July 6, 2000
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Overview of Recent U.S. Supreme Court Jurisprudence in Patent Law

An Overview of Recent U.S. Supreme Court Jurisprudence in Patent Law

Date: September 17, 2010
Creator: Yeh, Brian T.
Description: This report provides a brief summary of the Supreme Court's patent law jurisprudence in the following nine cases that have been decided since 2005: Merck KGaA v. Integra Lifesciences I, Unitherm Food Systems v. Swift-Eckrich, Illinois Tool Works v. Independent Ink, eBay v. MercExchange, Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings v. Metabolite Labs., MedImmune v. Genentech, KSR International Co. v. Teleflex Inc., Microsoft v. AT&T, Quanta Computer, Inc. v. LG Electronics, Inc., and Bilski v. Kappos.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Overview of State Charter School Laws

Overview of State Charter School Laws

Date: June 16, 1998
Creator: Jones, Kimberly D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Overview of the Medicare Prescription Drug and Reform Legislation

Overview of the Medicare Prescription Drug and Reform Legislation

Date: August 7, 2003
Creator: O'Sullivan, Jennifer; Chaikind, Hinda Ripps; Tilson, Sibyl L; Boulanger, Jennifer & Morgan, Paulette C
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Overview of the "Patent Trolls" Debate

An Overview of the "Patent Trolls" Debate

Date: April 16, 2013
Creator: Yeh, Brian T.
Description: This report reviews the current debate and controversy surrounding "patent assertion entities" (PAEs) and their effect on innovation, examines the reasons for the rise in PAE litigation, and explores the legislative options available to Congress if it decides that these are issues that should be addressed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Overview of the "Patent Trolls" Debate

An Overview of the "Patent Trolls" Debate

Date: August 20, 2012
Creator: Yeh, Brian T.
Description: This report reviews the current debate and controversy surrounding "patent assertion entities" (PAEs) and their effect on innovation, examines the reasons for the rise in PAE litigation, and explores the legislative options available to Congress if it decides that these are issues that should be addressed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Overview of Unconventional Oil and Natural Gas: Resources and Federal Actions

An Overview of Unconventional Oil and Natural Gas: Resources and Federal Actions

Date: January 23, 2014
Creator: Ratner, Michael & Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report focuses on the growth in U.S. oil and natural gas production driven primarily by tight oil formations and shale gas formations. It also reviews selected federal environmental regulatory and research initiatives related to unconventional oil and gas extraction, including the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) proposed hydraulic fracturing rule and EPA actions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department