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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of Pollutants
Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. For those waters, states must establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained. Implementation was dormant until recently, when states and EPA were prodded by numerous lawsuits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1524/
The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)
No firms have been sanctioned under the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA), and a GAO study in December 2007 said that the effects of ISA and other U.S. sanctions on Iran's economy are "difficult to determine." However, with Iran under increasing U.N. and other diplomatic pressure, many foreign firms now seem hesitant to finalize investment deals with Iran. In the 110th Congress, several bills, including the House-passed H.R. 1400 would add ISA provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10565/
Brazil's WTO Case Against the U.S. Cotton Program: A Brief Overview
On June 2, 2008, a World Trade Organization (WTO) Appellate Body (AB) publicly released its final report upholding a December 2007 compliance panel ruling that the United States has not fully complied with a March 2005 WTO ruling against certain U.S. cotton support programs. This AB ruling was part of a prolonged dispute settlement case (DS267) originated by Brazil against certain aspects of the U.S. cotton program in September 2002. This report provides a brief overview of Brazil's case against the U.S. cotton program, the evolution and current status of the case, and the potential role for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10643/
Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense
Whether broader expansions from federal environmental laws are needed to preserve military readiness has been an issue. Questions have been raised as to whether environmental requirements have limited military training activities to the point that readiness would be compromised. The potential impacts of broader exemptions on environmental quality have raised additional questions. Although certain exemptions the Department of Defense (DOD) first requested in FY2003 have been enacted into law, Congress has opposed others. From FY2003 to FY2008, DOD requested exemptions from the Clean Air Act, Solid Waste Disposal Act, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. To date, Congress has not enacted these three latter exceptions. The Administration's FY2009 defense authorization bill does not include these exemptions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10640/
The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice
This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under Military Commission Order (M.C.O.) No. 1 to general military courts-martial conducted under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ). A summary of the case Rumsfeld v. Hamdan follows, in particular the shortcomings identified by the Supreme Court. The report provides an overview of relevant legislation. Finally, the report provides two charts to compare the regulations issued by the Department of Defense to standard procedures for general courts-martial under the Manual for Courts-Martial and to proposed legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10451/
Condemnation of Private Property for Economic Development: Legal Comments on the House-Passed Bill (H.R. 4128) and Bond Amendment
The prohibition on economic development condemnations extends not only to land taken for the explicit purpose of economic development but also to land subsequently so used. The latter coverage raises the possibility that although a parcel was initially condemned for a non-prohibited purpose, its use years later for a prohibited one would trigger the two-year cut-off of federal funds. Nor does there seem to be any proportionality requirement between the prohibited condemnations and the length and scope of the federal funds suspension. If Congress’ Spending Power includes a proportionality requirement for conditions on federal funds, as the Court suggests, the absence of proportionality in some of the bill’s applications may raise a constitutional issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8250/
South Africa: U.S. Policy After Sanctions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8887/
Libya: Legislative Basis for U.S. Economic Sanctions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8687/
The Congressional Research Service and the American Legislative Process
The Legislative Reference Service, it was charged with responding to congressional requests for information. For more than 50 years, this department assisted Congress primarily by providing facts and publications and by transmitting research and analysis done largely by other government agencies, private organizations, and individual scholars. In 1970, Congress enacted a law transforming the Legislative Reference Service into the Congressional Research Service (CRS) and directing CRS to devote more of its efforts and increased resources to performing research and analysis that assists Congress in direct support of the legislative process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9442/
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act
This report is intended to provide an overview of the Adequate Yearly Process (AYP) concept and several related issues, a description of the AYP provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act, and an analysis of the implementation of these provisions by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) and the states. It will be updated when major administrative actions are taken by ED, or substantial new data on state implementation become available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9446/
Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances
Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and often contentious component in U.S. efforts to isolate the communist government of Fidel Castro for much of the past 40 years. Under the Bush Administration, enforcement of U.S. restrictions on Cuba travel has increased, and restrictions on travel and on private remittances to Cuba have been tightened. Several legislative initiatives have been introduced in the 109th Congress that would ease restrictions on travel and remittances to Cuba. These bills would, among other things, lift overall restrictions on travel to Cuba, lift the overall embargo, and ease restrictions on exporting agricultural commodities to Cuba. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9388/
The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice
This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under M.C.O. No. 1 to general military courts-martial conducted under the UCMJ. The report notes some of the criticism directed at the President’s M.O., and explains how those concerns are addressed by the military commission orders and instructions. The report provides two charts to compare the regulations issued by the Department of Defense and standard procedures for general courts-martial under the Manual for Courts-Martial. The second chart, which compares procedural safeguards incorporated in the regulations with established procedures in courts martial, follows the same order and format used in CRS Report RL31262, Selected Procedural Safeguards in Federal, Military, and International Courts, in order to facilitate comparison with safeguards provided in federal court and the International Criminal Court. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9774/
Tobacco Legislation in the 105th Congress: Side-by-Side Comparison of S. 1415, S. 1530, S. 1638, S. 1889, H.R. 3474, and H.R. 3868
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs516/
Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues
From late 2004 through early 2005, a combination of intensified international pressure and deadlines associated with Euro- Atlantic integration processes prompted a spate of transfers of indicted persons to the tribunal. Full cooperation with ICTY is a key prerequisite to further progress toward a shared long-term goal for the western Balkan countries: closer association with and eventual membership in the European Union (EU) and NATO. As of March 2006, six persons indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) remained at large, including wartime Bosnian Serb leaders Radovan Karadzic and Gen. Ratko Mladic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8783/
India and Pakistan: U.S. Economic Sanctions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5088/
Mexico's Counter-Narcotics Efforts under Fox, December 2000 to October 2004
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5800/
South Africa: U.S. Policy After Sanctions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8877/
Sanctions against South Africa: Activities of the 99th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8876/
Genetically Engineered Soybeans: Acceptance and Intellectual Property Rights Issues in South America
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9082/
Iraqi Compliance with Cease-Fire Agreements
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1571/
The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice
This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under Military Commission Order (M.C.O.) No. 1 and general military courts-martial conducted under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ). The report notes some of the criticism directed at the President's Military Order (M.O.), and explains how those concerns are addressed by the military commission orders and instructions. The report concludes by summarizing legislation introduced to authorize and regulate military tribunals to try suspected Al Qaeda and Taliban members, and provides two charts to compare the proposed military tribunals under proposed legislation, the regulations issued by the Department of Defense, and standard procedures for general courts-martial under the Manual for Courts-Martial. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10202/
Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues: 2005 Update
A combination of intensified international pressure and deadlines associated with Euro-Atlantic integration processes has prompted a spate of transfers of persons indicted for war crimes to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague in late 2004-early 2005. Full cooperation with The Hague tribunal has been established as a key prerequisite to further progress toward a shared long-term goal for the western Balkan countries: closer association with and eventual membership in the European Union (EU) and NATO. This report is updated as the number of individuals indicted for war crimes have been transferred to The Hague from Serbia, Kosovo, and Bosnia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6280/
The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice
This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under M.C.O. No. 1 to general military courts-martial conducted under the UCMJ. The report notes some of the criticism directed at the President’s M.O., and explains how those concerns are addressed by the military commission orders and instructions. The report provides two charts to compare the regulations issued by the Department of Defense and standard procedures for general courts-martial under the Manual for Courts-Martial. The second chart, which compares procedural safeguards incorporated in the regulations with established procedures in courts martial, follows the same order and format used in CRS Report RL31262, Selected Procedural Safeguards in Federal, Military, and International Courts, in order to facilitate comparison with safeguards provided in federal court and the International Criminal Court. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6166/
Iraq: Weapons Threat, Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2475/
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2472/
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2471/
Iraq: Weapons Threat, Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2477/
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2470/
Iraq: Weapons Threat, Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2478/
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2474/
Iraq: Weapons Threat, Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2479/
Iraq: Weapons Threat, Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2476/
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2473/
Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of Pollutants
Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. For those waters, states must establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained. Implementation was dormant until recently, when states and EPA were prodded by numerous lawsuits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2340/
Mexico's Counter-Narcotics Efforts under Fox, December 2000 to April 2002
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2385/
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2468/
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2469/
Mexico's Counter-Narcotics Efforts Under Zedillo, December 1994 to March 1998
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs600/
Environmental Protection: Defense-Related Programs
The Department of Defense (DOD) operates six environmental programs that address cleanup of past contamination at military facilities, compliance with environmental laws and regulations that apply to current activities, cleanup at military bases being closed, pollution prevention, natural resource conservation, and environmental technology. In addition, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste generated from the past production of atomic materials used to construct nuclear weapons and for remediating contaminated sites. For FY1999, the Administration has requested a total of $10. 14 billion for DOD and DOE's defense-related environmental activities, which represents about 3.7% of the total request of $271.6 billion for national defense and is roughly 1.6% below the FY1998 funding level of $l0.30 billion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs615/
Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues
In early May 2006, assessments of insufficient Serbian cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) led the European Union (EU) to suspend association talks with Serbia. Later that month, the U.S. Secretary of State withheld certification of full Serbian cooperation with ICTY, leading to a partial suspension of U.S. bilateral assistance to Serbia. From late 2004 through early 2005, a combination of intensified international pressure and deadlines associated with Euro-Atlantic integration processes prompted a spate of transfers of indicted persons to the tribunal. Full cooperation with ICTY is a key prerequisite to further progress toward a shared long-term goal for the western Balkan countries: closer association with and eventual membership in the European Union and NATO. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10225/
The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice
This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under M.C.O. (Military Commission Order) No. 1 to general military courts-martial conducted under the UCMJ. The report notes some of the criticism directed at the President's M.O., and explains how those concerns are addressed by the military commission orders and instructions. A summary of the Hamdan case follows, as well as an overview of relevant legislation. Finally, the report provides two charts to compare the regulations issued by the Department of Defense to standard procedures for general courts-martial under the Manual for Courts-Martial and to proposed legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10212/
Current U.S. Sanctions Against China
In the months following China's 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown, both the President and the Congress took a number of initiatives protesting Beijing's actions. These initiatives centered around U.S. concerns related to trade, human rights, and non-proliferation. In intervening years, the United States has periodically imposed, lifted, or waived other sanctions and concluded several trade-related agreements with China relating to these concerns. Those measures that remain in place in 1994 are detailed in the accompanying tables. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs121/
China: Economic Sanctions
This report discusses a list of economic sanctions that the United States currently maintains against China. The influence of Congress on U.S. policy toward China, once significant because so much hung on the annual possibility that favorable trade terms could be suspended, has more recently been diffused. Sanctions that remain in place today can all be modified, eased, or lifted altogether by the President, without congressional input. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8581/
Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress, and refers readers to more in-depth CRS reports on specific Arctic-related issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227666/
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9432/
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9433/
Obscenity: A Legal Primer
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9191/
China: U.S. Economic Sanctions
This report presents a history of U.S. economic sanctions imposed against the People's Republic of China for foreign policy reasons since 1949. It highlights sanctions that are currently active and details occasions on which those restrictions have been modified, waived or permanently lifted. The report provides citations for Presidential authority in current law and the Administration's issuance of regulations and administrative orders. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs450/
India and Pakistan: Current U.S. Economic Sanctions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3208/
Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of Pollutants
Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. For those waters, states must establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained. Implementation was dormant until recently, when states and EPA were prodded by numerous lawsuits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4077/