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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Federal Estate, Gift, and Generation-Skipping Taxes: A Description of Current Law
This report contains an explanation of the major provisions of the Federal estate, gift, and generation-skipping transfer taxes. The discussion divides the Federal estate tax into three components: the gross estate, deductions from the gross estate, and computation of the tax, including allowable tax credits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3420/
Access to Government Information In the United States: A Primer
The U.S. Constitution makes no specific allowance for any one of the three branches of the federal government to have access to information held by the others. No provision in the U.S. Constitution expressly establishes a procedure for public access to government information. Congress has legislated various public access laws. Among these laws are two records access statutes, The Freedom of Information Act, the Privacy Act, and two meetings access statutes, the Federal Advisory Committee Act, and the Government in the Sunshine Act. This report offers an overview of the four information access laws noted above, and provides citations to additional resources related to these tools. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc816803/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 110th Congress
Aquaculture — the farming of fish, shellfish, and other aquatic animals and plants in a controlled environment — is expanding rapidly abroad, with more modest advances in the United States. This report discusses the federal laws and regulations that guide the management of resources in open ocean and near-shore coastal areas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820955/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 110th Congress
This report discusses the federal laws and regulations that guide the management of resources in open ocean and near-shore coastal areas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98088/
EPA Policies Concerning Integrated Planning and Affordability of Water Infrastructure
This report examines recent initiatives by EPA, an integrated planning policy, and a framework policy for assessing a community's financial capability to meet objectives and requirements of the Clean Water Act (CWA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847621/
Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: EPA's Air Compliance Agreement
This report discusses a plan announced by EPA in January 2005, called the Air Compliance Agreement, intended to produce air quality monitoring data on animal agriculture emissions from a small number of farms, while at the same time protecting all participants (including farms where no monitoring takes place) through a "safe harbor" from liability under certain provisions of federal environmental laws. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847537/
Access to Government Information in the United States: A Primer
This report offers an introduction to the four access laws and provides citations to additional resources related to these statutes. It includes statistics on the use of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) and on litigation related to FOIA. In addition, this report provides some examples of the methods Congress, the President, and the courts have employed to provide or require the provision of information to one another, as well as a list of resources related to transparency, secrecy, access, and nondisclosure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847720/
Nominations to the Supreme Court During Years of Divided and Unified Party Government
This report provides data and analysis related to nominations made to the Supreme Court during years of unified and divided party government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847721/
Water Quality Issues in the 110th Congress: Oversight and Implementation
This report discusses issues surrounding the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972 and programs set up to meet the water quality standards that it outlined. The report focuses specifically on the legislative issues for the 110th Congress in relation to the CWA. It also includes a brief comparison of the expected appropriations for FY2007 and FY2008. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847727/
Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: An Overview of Congressional Action
This report discusses the difficulty of assessing the impact of environmental requirements on military readiness, broader exemptions for military activities that Congress has enacted, and DOD's request for additional exemptions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847737/
Justice Antonin Scalia: His Jurisprudence and His Impact on the Court
This report discusses Justice Scalia's jurisprudence on key areas of law, as well as how that jurisprudence could be seen to have influenced the Court's approach to these subject matters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847755/
Freedom of Information Act Legislation in the 114th Congress: Issue Summary and Side-by-Side Analysis
This report provides a side-by-side comparison of two bills relevant to the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), using the versions that have passed each of their originating congressional chambers. The report also provides context related to bill amendments and language additions that occurred between bill versions, when applicable. Finally, the report provides analysis of certain provisions of the bills. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847758/
Ocean Dumping Act: A Summary of the Law
This report presents a summary of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532), describing the essence of the statute. The law has two basic aims: to regulate intentional ocean disposal of materials, and to authorize related research. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847657/
Western Water Resource Issues
This report discusses the debate over western water resources, which revolves around the issue of how best to plan for and manage the use of this renewable, yet sometimes scarce and increasingly sought after, resource. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847679/
The National Environmental Policy Act: Streamlining NEPA
This report discusses elements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA; 42 U.S.C. §§ 4321, et seq.) relevant to streamlining, issues associated with determining project delays attributed to NEPA, common streamlining methods, and recently proposed and enacted legislative and administrative streamlining activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847702/
U.S. Sugar Program Fundamentals
This report discusses the U.S. sugar program, which is singular among major agricultural commodity programs in that it combines a floor price guarantee with a supply management structure that encompasses both domestic production for human use and sugar imports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847613/
Clean Air Act Issues in the 110th Congress: Implementation and Oversight
This report provides a discussion of several interrelated air issues of interest in the 110th Congress, including revision of the particulate standards, the role of independent scientific review in the setting of air quality standards, multi-pollutant legislation for electric power plants, mercury from power plants, and New Source Review. This report provides an overview of these issues; CRS reports that contain additional information and detailed sources are referenced in the appropriate sections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821163/
Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of Pollutants
This report discusses the section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, which requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. For those waters, states must establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained. Implementation of this provision has been dormant until recently, when states and EPA were prodded by numerous lawsuits. The TMDL issue has become controversial, in part because of requirements and costs now facing states to implement a 25-year-old provision of the law. Congressional activity to reauthorize the Act, a possibility in the 2nd Session of the 105th Congress, could include TMDL issues, but the direction for any such action is unclear at this time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820978/
Exporting Software and the Extraterritorial Reach of U.S. Patent Law: Microsoft Corp. v. AT&T Corp.
Generally speaking, United States patent law does not have extraterritorial effect. The exception, however, is § 271(f) of the Patent Act, which makes it an act of patent infringement to manufacture within the United States the components of a patented invention and then export those disassembled parts for combination abroad into an end product. This report discusses Microsoft Corp. v. AT&T Corp. (550 U.S. ___ , No. 05-1056, decided April 30, 2007), in which the U.S. Supreme Court held that software companies are not liable for patent infringement under § 271(f) when they export software that has been embodied in machine-readable, physical form (a CD-ROM, for example), with the intent that such software be copied abroad for installation onto foreign-manufactured computers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821404/
Journalists’ Privilege: Overview of the Law and Legislation in the 109th and 110th Congresses
This report examines laws pertaining to journalists' privilege. Most states afford journalists some protection from compelled release of their confidential sources. The question remains, however, as to whether a concomitant federal privilege exists. The Supreme Court has addressed the issue of journalists’ privilege under the First Amendment only once; in Branzburg v. Hayes, it left open the question of whether the First Amendment provides journalists with any privilege. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821425/
Temporary Protected Status: Current Immigration Policy and Issues
When civil unrest, violence, or natural disasters erupt in spots around the world, concerns arise over the safety of nationals from these troubled places who are in the United States. This report discusses provisions that exist in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) to offer temporary protected status (TPS) or relief from removal under specified circumstances. The United States currently provides TPS to nationals from seven countries: Burundi, El Salvador, Honduras, Liberia, Nicaragua, Somalia, and Sudan. Under the INA, the executive branch grants TPS. Congress, however, has also granted TPS legislatively, and legislation pertaining to TPS has received action in the 110th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821090/
Data Security: Federal Legislative Approaches
This report discusses the core areas addressed in federal legislation, including the scope of coverage (who is covered and what information is covered); data privacy and security safeguards for sensitive personal information; requirements for security breach notification (when, how, triggers, frequency, and exceptions); restrictions on social security numbers (collection, use, and sale); credit freezes on consumer reports; identity theft penalties; causes of action; and preemption. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462159/
Homeland Security Act of 2002: Legislative History and Pagination Key
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7490/
Data Security: Federal Legislative Approaches
This report discusses the core areas addressed in federal legislation, including the scope of coverage (who is covered and what information is covered); data privacy and security safeguards for sensitive personal information; requirements for security breach notification (when, how, triggers, frequency, and exceptions); restrictions on social security numbers (collection, use, and sale); credit freezes on consumer reports; identity theft penalties; causes of action; and preemption. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9019/
Weapons of Mass Destruction Counterproliferation: Legal Issues for Ships and Aircraft
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5698/
FBI Intelligence Reform Since September 11, 2001: Issues and Options for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5968/
Proposals for Intelligence Reorganization, 1949-2004
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Proposals for Intelligence Reorganization, 1949-2004
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Intelligence Community Reorganization: Potential Effects on DOD Intelligence Agencies
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5973/
Intelligence Community Reorganization: Potential Effects on DOD Intelligence Agencies
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5974/
Intelligence Community Reorganization: Potential Effects on DOD Intelligence Agencies
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5975/
Air Quality: Impacts of Trip Reduction Programs on States and Affected Employers
This report discusses employer trip reduction (ETR) programs, which would require large employers to implement certain transportation control measures as part of a national effort to combat air pollution, largely as a direct result of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs45/
FBI Intelligence Reform Since September 11, 2001: Issues and Options for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5967/
Sport Hunting in Alaska
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9234/
Litigation Seeking to Establish Climate Change Impacts as a Common Law Nuisance
This report discusses recent legislative initiatives seeking to establish climate change impacts as a common law nuisance. The report explains what private and public nuisances are, the issues faced by policymakers when litigating a climate-change/nuisance suit, and also discusses five climate-chance/nuisance suits that are now or formerly active, as a basis of comparison. The report also explores arguments of those both for and against addressing the complex issue of climate change through common law suits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29637/
International Criminal Court Cases in Africa: Status and Policy Issues
The International Criminal Court (ICC) has, to date, opened cases exclusively in Africa. Cases concerning 25 individuals are open before the Court, pertaining to crimes allegedly committed in six African states: Libya, Kenya, Sudan (Darfur), Uganda (the Lord's Resistance Army, LRA), the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the Central African Republic. This report provides background on current ICC cases and examines issues raised by the ICC's actions in Africa. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94168/
International Criminal Court Cases in Africa: Status and Policy Issues
The International Criminal Court (ICC) has, to date, opened cases exclusively in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Statute of the ICC, also known as the Rome Statute, entered into force on July 1, 2002, and established a permanent, independent Court to investigate and bring to justice individuals who commit war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide. As of October 2010, 114 countries-including 31 African countries, the largest regional block-were parties to the Statute. The United States is not a party. This report provides background on current ICC cases and examines issues raised by the ICC's actions in Africa. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33072/
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Schaffer v. Weast
This report discusses the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which is the main federal program concerning the education of children with disabilities. It authorizes state and local aid for special education and related services for children with disabilities and contains detailed due process protections for children with disabilities and their parents. On December 3, 2004, President Bush signed “The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Improvement Act” (P.L. 108-446), a major reauthorization and revision of IDEA. One issue which was not addressed in the reauthorization was whether the parents or the school bears the burden of proof in special education due process hearings. On November 14, 2005, the Supreme Court resolved a split in the circuits and held that the burden of proof in an administrative hearing challenging a child’s individualized education program is on the party seeking the relief. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8327/
USA PATRIOT Act: Background and Comparison of House- and Senate-approved Reauthorization and Related Legislative Action
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USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization Proposals and Related Matters in Brief
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USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization in Brief
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Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act — A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU or SAFETEA): Selected Major Provisions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7685/
Surface Transportation: SAFETEA-LU
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The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species: Its Past and Future
This report discusses the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). It is divided into six sections: Introduction, Background, CITES and the Endangered Species Act, Implementation, Upcoming Events, and Appendices. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs96/
USA PATRIOT Act Sunset: Provisions That Expire on December 31, 2005
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General Management Laws and the 9/11 Commission's Proposed Office of National Intelligence Director (NID) and National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5977/
The Position of Director of National Intelligence: Issues for Congress
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The Position of Director of National Intelligence: Issues for Congress
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USA PATRIOT Act Sunset: Provisions That Expire on December 31, 2005
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6169/
USA PATRIOT Act Sunset: Provisions That Expire on December 31, 2005
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5789/