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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Association Health Plans, Health Marts and the Small Group Market for Health Insurance

Association Health Plans, Health Marts and the Small Group Market for Health Insurance

Date: July 7, 2003
Creator: Hearne, Jean P
Description: An estimated 41.2 million people were without health insurance in 2001. Legislation under consideration by the 108th and earlier Congresses is intended to assist small employers in offering health insurance as a benefit to their workers. A new bill, H.R. 4281, introduced on May 5, 2004, The Small Business Health Fairness Act of 2003 (H.R. 6601s. 545), and a number of bills from the earlier Congresses include provisions creating new groups for small firms to join or encouraging the growth of existing groups so that small employers can band together to offer coverage to their employees.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2003

Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2003

Date: January 13, 2003
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: The Department of Defense (DOD) administers five environmental programs in response to various requirements under federal environmental laws. These programs include environmental cleanup, environmental compliance, pollution prevention, environmental technology, and conservation. Additionally, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and cleaning up contaminated nuclear weapons sites. The Administration requested a total of $11.17 billion for these programs in FY2003, about $390 million more than the FY2002 funding level of $10.78 billion. Some of the ongoing issues associated with these programs are the adequacy, cost, and pace of cleanup, whether DOD and DOE adequately comply with environmental laws and regulations, and the extent to which environmental requirements encroach upon military readiness.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2003

Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2003

Date: July 24, 2003
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: The Department of Defense (DOD) administers five environmental programs in response to various requirements under federal environmental laws. These programs include environmental cleanup, environmental compliance, pollution prevention, environmental technology, and conservation. Additionally, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and cleaning up contaminated nuclear weapons sites. The Administration requested a total of $11.17 billion for these programs in FY2003, about $390 million more than the FY2002 funding level of $10.78 billion. Some of the ongoing issues associated with these programs are the adequacy, cost, and pace of cleanup, whether DOD and DOE adequately comply with environmental laws and regulations, and the extent to which environmental requirements encroach upon military readiness.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2003

Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2003

Date: February 3, 2003
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: The Department of Defense (DOD) administers five environmental programs in response to various requirements under federal environmental laws. These programs include environmental cleanup, environmental compliance, pollution prevention, environmental technology, and conservation. Additionally, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and cleaning up contaminated nuclear weapons sites. The Administration requested a total of $11.17 billion for these programs in FY2003, about $390 million more than the FY2002 funding level of $10.78 billion. Some of the ongoing issues associated with these programs are the adequacy, cost, and pace of cleanup, whether DOD and DOE adequately comply with environmental laws and regulations, and the extent to which environmental requirements encroach upon military readiness.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Current Law and Legislative Proposals

The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Current Law and Legislative Proposals

Date: May 30, 2003
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report provides a brief overview of how the Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA)2 and their relevant regulations may apply to military training and readiness activities of the Department of Defense (DOD). Military activities may “take” protected creatures directly (e.g,. killing with ordnance during rifle, gunnery or assault drills), or might destroy habitat (e.g., artillery or bombing practices), even if these results are not the purpose of the activities. The applicability of the MBTA and ESA to military readiness activities has been controversial recently and legislation has been enacted in both the 107th and 108th Congresses on these topics.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Attorneys' Fees in the State Tobacco Litigation Cases

Attorneys' Fees in the State Tobacco Litigation Cases

Date: September 23, 1997
Creator: Contrubis, John
Description: In the past few years, many states have filed complaints against the tobacco industry in state court to recover Medicaid costs paid by the states to treat their citizens for tobacco related illnesses. The states are also attempting to recover other damages, such as punitive damages, against the tobacco industry. For various reasons, the states have hired private attorneys to assist the state Attorneys General in prosecuting these cases. In most cases, the retention of private counsel has included a fee agreement specifying the amount of compensation that these attorneys will receive for their services. These agreements are not uniform among the states, but most tend to provide some form of contingency fee arrangement. Some of these states have developed a sliding scale contingency fee schedule which varies with the amount of time spent on the litigation and whether a trial has begun. This report briefly summarizes the different fee agreements that the states have with private counsel.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 108th Congress

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 108th Congress

Date: October 10, 2003
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne; Gelb, Bernard A & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to approve energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Current law forbids energy leasing in the Refuge. This report addresses several legislative options on the issue, as well as policymakers' arguments for and against development, especially in the wake of increasing terrorism since 2000-2001.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Tobacco Advertising: Whether the FDA's Restrictions Violate Freedom of Speech

Tobacco Advertising: Whether the FDA's Restrictions Violate Freedom of Speech

Date: May 23, 1997
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act: Reauthorization and Appropriations

The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act: Reauthorization and Appropriations

Date: January 10, 2003
Creator: Cooper, Edith Fairman
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act: Reauthorization and Appropriations

The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act: Reauthorization and Appropriations

Date: March 13, 2003
Creator: Cooper, Edith Fairman
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department