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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Calculation of Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the Renewable Fuel Standard

Calculation of Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the Renewable Fuel Standard

Date: June 25, 2009
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D. & Bracmort, Kelsi S.
Description: The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) significantly expanded the renewable fuel standard (RFS) established in the Energy Policy Act of 2005. EISA requires an increasing amount of the 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022 mandate be met with "advanced biofuels." This report defines the classification "biofuels," discusses the ongoing debate regarding several aspects of biofuels endeavors, and discusses related legislative efforts on climate change policy and low-carbon fuel standards.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
DOD's National Security Personnel System: Statute, Regulations, and Implementation Plans

DOD's National Security Personnel System: Statute, Regulations, and Implementation Plans

Date: March 16, 2006
Creator: Schwemle, Barbara L
Description: This report discusses each of the provisions in Title XI of P.L. 108-136 and plans to implement the law. Title XI of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY2004, P.L. 108-136, includes provisions on a National Security Personnel System (NSPS) for the Department of Defense (DOD) and provisions on personnel management that are applicable government-wide. The law was enacted on November 24, 2003.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Eliminating International Child Labor: U.S. and International Initiatives

Eliminating International Child Labor: U.S. and International Initiatives

Date: February 28, 2003
Creator: Salaam, Tiaji
Description: In November 1999, during the World Trade Organization (WTO) conference in Seattle, hundreds of protestors took to the street to protest a number of issues, including the international use of child labor, which has become increasingly important in discussions on international trade, human rights and international assistance. While awareness of the issue has increased, the ability to address the complex problem has been complicated by a number of related factors including rising poverty, surging HIV/AIDS infection rates, and a lack of relevant education. This report will outline the scope of the international child labor problem, explain the difficulties in eliminating it, describe U.S. and international child labor programs, and present some issues Congress may consider.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Emergency Alert System (EAS) and All-Hazard Warnings

The Emergency Alert System (EAS) and All-Hazard Warnings

Date: June 26, 2009
Creator: Moore, Linda K.
Description: The Emergency Alert System (EAS) is built on a structure conceived in the 1950's when over-the-air broadcasting was the best-available technology for widely disseminating emergency alerts. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), working with the Association of Public Television Stations, is implementing a program that will disseminate national alert messages over digital broadcast airwaves, using satellite and public TV broadcast towers. This program is referred to as the Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS). Legislation was passed at the end of the 109th Congress to assure funding to public television stations to install digital equipment to handle national alerts. The 111th Congress may pursue additional oversight to related programs that would continue to improve the nation's capability to provide alerts and information before, during, and after an emergency.
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Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)

Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)

Date: April 11, 2005
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: The agencies that implement the Endangered Species Act (ESA) regard the designation of critical habitat (CH) as providing only very limited benefits beyond those achieved through the listing of species and the avoidance of jeopardy to them. Several courts have now held that the relevant regulation and interpretation that result in this conclusion are erroneous and do not carry out the intent of Congress.
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Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Restoration: The Recommended Corps Plan

Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Restoration: The Recommended Corps Plan

Date: April 11, 2005
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: The Corps estimates that this entire package of recommended activities would cost a total of $1,996 million. Included in this package are recommendations for immediate authorization ($1,123 million), further authorized investigation ($145 million), and projects that could be authorized in the future ($728 million). This CRS short report is limited to a summary of this Corps report and the next steps in implementation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Water Issues in the 107th Congress: An Overview

Clean Water Issues in the 107th Congress: An Overview

Date: January 5, 2001
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: Key water quality issues that may face the 107th Congress include: actions to implement existing provisions of the Clean Water Act, whether additional steps are necessary to achieve overall goals of the Act, and the appropriate federal role in guiding and paying for clean water activities. This Act is the principal law that deals with polluting activity in the nation’s lakes, rivers, and coastal waters and authorizes funds to aid construction of municipal wastewater treatment plants. Legislative prospects for comprehensively amending it have been stalled over whether and exactly how to change the law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Davis-Bacon Act: Institutional Evolution and Public Policy

The Davis-Bacon Act: Institutional Evolution and Public Policy

Date: November 30, 2007
Creator: Whittaker, William G.
Description: This report examines policy issues the Davis-Bacon Act has sparked through the years and which remain a part of the Davis-Bacon debate of the 1990s. These include such questions as: wage rate determination procedures, reporting requirements under the Copeland Act, an appropriate threshold for activation of the statute, interagency relationships with respect to Davis-Bacon enforcement and compliance activity, administrative or judicial appeals procedures, the use of "helpers" and other low-skilled workers on covered projects, and the right of a President to suspend the statute as well as the conditions under which such a suspension may occur. That the fundamental premise of the Act remains in contention after 60 years may be, itself, part of the public policy debate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of Pollutants

Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of Pollutants

Date: January 4, 2005
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. For those waters, states must establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained. Implementation of this provision has been dormant until recently, when states and EPA were prodded by numerous lawsuits. The TMDL issue has become controversial, in part because of requirements and costs now facing states to implement a 25-year-old provision of the law. Congressional activity to reauthorize the Act, a possibility in the 2nd Session of the 105th Congress, could include TMDL issues, but the direction for any such action is unclear at this time.
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Clean Water Act Section 401: Background and Issues

Clean Water Act Section 401: Background and Issues

Date: October 5, 2006
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: Section 401 of the Clean Water Act requires that an applicant for a federal license or permit provide a certification that any discharges from the facility will comply with the Act, including water quality standard requirements. Disputes have arisen over the states' exercise of authority under Section 401. Until recently, much of the debate over the Section 401 certification issue has been between states and hydropower interests. A 1994 Supreme Court decision which upheld the states' authority in this area dismayed development and hydroelectric power interest groups. The Court revisited these issues in a 2006 ruling that unanimously upheld the states' authority to condition hydropower licenses. The dispute between states and industry groups about Section 401 authority has been a legislative issue on several occasions, but Congress has not responded by modifying the provision's scope. In addition, there has been interest in clarifying whether Section 401 certification applies to nonpoint source discharges, such as rainfall runoff, as well as point source discharges from pipes or ditches.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 109th Congress

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 109th Congress

Date: April 25, 2005
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne; Gelb, Bernard A & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to approve energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Current law forbids energy leasing in the Refuge. This report addresses several legislative options on the issue, as well as policymakers' arguments for and against development, especially in the wake of increasing terrorism since 2000-2001.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 109th Congress

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 109th Congress

Date: March 11, 2005
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne; Gelb, Bernard A & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to approve energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Current law forbids energy leasing in the Refuge. This report addresses several legislative options on the issue, as well as policymakers' arguments for and against development, especially in the wake of increasing terrorism since 2000-2001.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 109th Congress

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 109th Congress

Date: September 13, 2005
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne; Gelb, Bernard A & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to approve energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Current law forbids energy leasing in the Refuge. This report addresses several legislative options on the issue, as well as policymakers' arguments for and against development, especially in the wake of increasing terrorism since 2000-2001.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
SCHIP Financing: Funding Projections and State Redistribution Issues

SCHIP Financing: Funding Projections and State Redistribution Issues

Date: July 6, 2005
Creator: Peterson, Chris L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): State Grant Formulas

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): State Grant Formulas

Date: January 24, 2003
Creator: Apling, Richard N
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Amendments:  109th Congress

Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Amendments: 109th Congress

Date: May 16, 2005
Creator: Relyea, Harold C
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Crime Control Assistance to State and Local Governments

Federal Crime Control Assistance to State and Local Governments

Date: May 26, 2004
Creator: O'Bryant, JoAnne
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture

Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture

Date: February 16, 2000
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture

Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture

Date: December 20, 2000
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program

Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program

Date: January 10, 2002
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program

Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program

Date: July 3, 2002
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program

Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program

Date: January 7, 2003
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
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Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program

Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program

Date: March 10, 2003
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Amendments:  109th Congress

Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Amendments: 109th Congress

Date: June 28, 2005
Creator: Relyea, Harold C
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department