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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Iran: U.S. Economic Sanctions and the Authority to Lift Restrictions

Iran: U.S. Economic Sanctions and the Authority to Lift Restrictions

Date: November 21, 2014
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E.
Description: This report identifies the legislative bases for sanctions imposed on Iran, and the nature of the authority to waive or lift those restrictions. It comprises two tables that present legislation and executive orders that are specific to Iran and its objectionable activities in the areas of terrorism, human rights, and weapons proliferation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Family-Based Immigration Policy

U.S. Family-Based Immigration Policy

Date: November 19, 2014
Creator: Kandel, William A.
Description: This report provides an examination of family-based immigration policy. In doing so, it outlines a brief history of U.S. family-based immigration policies, discusses current law governing admissions, and summarizes recommendations made by previous congressionally mandated committees charged with evaluating immigration policy. It then presents descriptive figures on legal immigrants entering the United States during the past decade and discusses the sizable queue of approved immigrant petitioners waiting for an immigrant visa. It closes by discussing selected policy issues.
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Farm and Food Support Under USDA's Section 32 Program

Farm and Food Support Under USDA's Section 32 Program

Date: November 18, 2014
Creator: Shields, Dennis A.
Description: "Section 32" is a permanent appropriation that since 1935 has set aside the equivalent of 30% of annual customs receipts to support the farm sector through the purchase of surplus commodities and a variety of other activities. This report first describes how the Section 32 account operates by tracing funds flowing into and out of the account. Second, a more detailed discussion is provided for each type of use, including historical policies.
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Executive Discretion as to Immigration: Legal Overview

Executive Discretion as to Immigration: Legal Overview

Date: November 10, 2014
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Garcia, Michael John
Description: This report provides an overview of the three broad types of discretion that the Executive can be seen to have as to immigration: (1) express delegations of discretionary authority; (2) discretion in enforcement (commonly known as prosecutorial or enforcement discretion); and (3) discretion in interpreting and applying statutes.
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Voter Identification Requirements: Background and Legal Issues

Voter Identification Requirements: Background and Legal Issues

Date: November 10, 2014
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J.; Fischer, Eric A. & Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: Since 2008, more than 30 states have enacted laws relating to voter identification, with several containing photo ID requirements. Several states enacted voter identification laws that have either been struck down by courts or are not yet in effect. A number of bills with voter identification provisions have been introduced in the 113th Congress and one (S. 1945) has received committee consideration. This report examines this type of legislation and the legal issues regarding it.
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Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 113th Congress

Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 113th Congress

Date: November 4, 2014
Creator: Bruno, Andorra; Bjelopera, Jerome P.; Garcia, Michael John; Kandel, William A.; Lee, Margaret Mikyung; Siskin, Alison et al.
Description: Immigration reform was an active legislative issue in the first session of the 113th Congress. The Senate passed the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act (S. 744), a comprehensive immigration reform bill that includes provisions on border security, interior enforcement, employment eligibility verification and worksite enforcement, legalization of unauthorized aliens, immigrant visas, nonimmigrant visas, and humanitarian admissions. For its part, the House took a different approach to immigration reform. Rather than considering a single comprehensive bill, the House acted on a set of immigration bills that address border security, interior enforcement, employment eligibility verification and worksite enforcement, and nonimmigrant and immigrant visas. House committees reported or ordered to be reported the following immigration bills: Border Security Results Act of 2013 (H.R. 1417); Strengthen and Fortify Enforcement (SAFE) Act (H.R. 2278); Legal Workforce Act (H.R. 1772); Agricultural Guestworker (AG) Act (H.R. 1773); and Supplying Knowledge-based Immigrants and Lifting Levels of STEM Visas (SKILLS Visa) Act (H.R. 2131). This report discusses these and other immigration-related issues that received legislative action or have been of significant congressional interest in the 113th Congress.
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Aiding, Abetting, and the Like: An Overview of 18 U.S.C. 2

Aiding, Abetting, and the Like: An Overview of 18 U.S.C. 2

Date: October 24, 2014
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: This report discuses the issues that virtually every federal criminal statute has a hidden feature; helpers and hands-on offenders face the same punishment. This results from 18 U.S.C. 2, which visits the same consequences on anyone who orders or assists in the commission of a federal crime.
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Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: October 23, 2014
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran. U.S. sanctions have been a major feature of U.S. Iran policy since Iran's 1979 Islamic revolution, but U.N. and worldwide bilateral sanctions on Iran are a relatively recent (post-2006) development.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Infrastructure Financing: The Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) Program

Water Infrastructure Financing: The Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) Program

Date: October 23, 2014
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: Policy makers have recently been considering several legislative options to help finance water infrastructure projects, including projects to build and upgrade wastewater and drinking water treatment systems. This report examines one particular option, a "Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act," or WIFIA, program, which Congress included in the Water Resources Reform and Development Act of 2014 (WRRDA). As enacted (P.L. 113-121), the legislation creates a WIFIA pilot program based on provisions in Senate-passed S. 601 with some additions and modifications.
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House and Senate Floor and Committee Action to Reauthorize the Elementary and Secondary Education Act: 1966 to Present

House and Senate Floor and Committee Action to Reauthorize the Elementary and Secondary Education Act: 1966 to Present

Date: October 22, 2014
Creator: Skinner, Rebecca R. & Loane, Shannon S.
Description: The report provides vote information on comprehensive Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) reauthorization bills that have been considered in the committees of jurisdiction or on the House or Senate floors since the enactment of No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department