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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Americans with Disabilities Act: Eleventh Amendment Issues

The Americans with Disabilities Act: Eleventh Amendment Issues

Date: October 25, 2000
Creator: Jones, Nancy Lee
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the Eleventh Amendment to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Act Issues in the 106th Congress

Clean Air Act Issues in the 106th Congress

Date: November 14, 2000
Creator: McCarthy, James E
Description: The Clean Air Act and its 1990 amendments appear to have contributed to a marked improvement in air quality nationwide. Of nearly 100 metropolitan areas not meeting air quality standards for ozone in 1990, more than two-thirds now do so. Even greater progress has been achieved with carbon monoxide: 36 of 42 areas not in attainment in 1990 now meet the standard. Nevertheless, EPA remains concerned about air pollution. In 1997, the Agency promulgated major revisions to its air quality standards for ozone and particulates, an action that would require most states and urban areas to establish additional controls on a wide range of pollution sources. The revised standards were challenged by numerous parties and the courts have remanded the standards to EPA. Implementation is currently in limbo, pending resolution of appeals by the Supreme Court.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Police and Law Enforcement: Selected Issues

Police and Law Enforcement: Selected Issues

Date: November 17, 2000
Creator: O'Bryant, JoAnne
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity

Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity

Date: November 21, 2000
Creator: Pregelj, Vladimir N
Description: The entry into force, on January 1, 1994, of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has eliminated the advantage that the beneficiaries of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA) and related provisions of the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) had enjoyed in trade with the United States relative to Mexico, and gave Mexico an increasingly significant competitive edge over the CBERA countries. The scheduled further implementation of the NAFTA would have resulted in a substantial advantage to Mexico over the CBERA countries and vitiate in part the purpose of the CBERA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Tax Legislation: Distinguishing Issues

Internet Tax Legislation: Distinguishing Issues

Date: November 24, 2000
Creator: Noto, Nonna A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program

Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program

Date: November 29, 2000
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the “oil-for-food” program which represents a longstanding U.N. Security Council effort to alleviate human suffering in Iraq while maintaining pressure on the Iraqi government to comply with all relevant U.N. Security Council resolutions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pharmacy Benefit Managers

Pharmacy Benefit Managers

Date: November 29, 2000
Creator: Sroka, Christopher J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Alternative Transportation Fuels and Vehicles: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues

Alternative Transportation Fuels and Vehicles: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues

Date: December 5, 2000
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D
Description: This report reviews several issues relating to alternative fuels and vehicles, mainly to combat dependence on petroleum imports and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The report discusses the advantages and drawbacks of various alternative fuels and vehicles, as well as related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Standards: The Supreme Court Agrees to Review

Clean Air Standards: The Supreme Court Agrees to Review

Date: December 5, 2000
Creator: Meltz, Robert & McCarthy, James E
Description: In May, 2000, the Supreme Court agreed to review this decision, raising the prospect of a major pronouncement on the non-delegation doctrine, the enforceability of the revised ozone standard, and the role of compliance costs in setting nationwide air quality standards.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance: Constitutional and Legal Issues of Soft Money

Campaign Finance: Constitutional and Legal Issues of Soft Money

Date: December 11, 2000
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: As in the 105th Congress, many of the 106th Congress bills focus on political party soft money--subjecting contributions, expenditures, or transfers of national political parties to the limitations, prohibitions and reporting requirements of the FECA. Other bills would restrict corporate and labor union soft money. Another major reform proposal would subject certain types of advocacy communications to FECA regulation, either fully or just insofar as disclosure requirements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Foreign Sales Corporation (FSC) Tax Benefit for Exporting: WTO Issues and an Economic Analysis

The Foreign Sales Corporation (FSC) Tax Benefit for Exporting: WTO Issues and an Economic Analysis

Date: December 11, 2000
Creator: Brumbaugh, David L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Patent Ownership and Federal Research and Development (R and D): A Discussion on the Bayh-Dole Act and the Stevenson-Wydler Act

Patent Ownership and Federal Research and Development (R and D): A Discussion on the Bayh-Dole Act and the Stevenson-Wydler Act

Date: December 11, 2000
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agriculture and the 106th Congress: A Summary of Major Issues

Agriculture and the 106th Congress: A Summary of Major Issues

Date: December 15, 2000
Creator: Jones, Jean Yavis
Description: Most congressional interest in agriculture in the 106th Congress was focused on persistent low prices for major commodities and proposals to redress declining farm income. Six emergency farm aid bills were approved, increasing agricultural spending by nearly $27 billion for fiscal years 1999-2001. These bills provided disaster relief along with short term “market loss payments”to farmers to shore up farm income. Some longer term changes also were enacted as part of emergency farm legislation, which this report discusses in brief.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Economic Sanctions: Legislation in the 106th Congress

Economic Sanctions: Legislation in the 106th Congress

Date: December 15, 2000
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E
Description: This report tracks legislation relating to the use of economic sanctions in pursuit of foreign policy or national security objectives. Separate sections are given to the areas of greatest activity: sanctions imposed against India and Pakistan; exemptions of food and medicine exports; and sanctions reform. A separate table is included listing sanctions measures that were introduced but received no consideration, including measures pertaining to export controls, nonproliferation, drug certifications, and the sanctions regimes leveled, or proposed to be leveled, against Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Serbia and Montenegro, and other countries.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Date: December 19, 2000
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture

Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture

Date: December 20, 2000
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety - Federal Program and Legislative Issues

Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety - Federal Program and Legislative Issues

Date: December 28, 2000
Creator: Rothberg, Paul F & Hassan, Hussein D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Abortion Law Development: A Brief Overview

Abortion Law Development: A Brief Overview

Date: January 2, 2001
Creator: Lewis, Karen J. & Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Description: This report offers an overview of the development of abortion law from 1973 to the present. Beginning with a brief discussion of the historical background, the report analyzes the leading Supreme Court decisions over the past twenty-eight years, emphasizing particularly the landmark decisions in Roe and Doe, the Court’s shift in direction in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services and Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, and the Court’s most recent decision on abortion, Stenberg v. Carhart. The Court’s decisions on the constitutionality of restricting public funding for abortion are also discussed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Act Issues in the 107th Congress

Clean Air Act Issues in the 107th Congress

Date: January 2, 2001
Creator: McCarthy, James E
Description: Revisions to the air quality standards for ozone and particulates, promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1997, may also command renewed attention in the 107th Congress. The standards were challenged in the courts, and implementation is currently in limbo, pending resolution of appeals to the Supreme Court. The Court heard oral arguments November 7, 2000, and a decision is expected in spring 2001. The decision is likely to stimulate congressional oversight, and perhaps legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Medicaid, SCHIP, and Other Health Provisions in H.R. 5661: Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000

Medicaid, SCHIP, and Other Health Provisions in H.R. 5661: Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000

Date: January 4, 2001
Creator: Hearne, Jean P; Herz, Elicia J & Baumrucker, Evelyne P
Description: This report discusses Medicaid and the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). The report also discusses other major health provisions provisions of H.R. 5661 are incorporated, by reference into H.R. 4577, the Consolidated Appropriations Act 2001.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Water Issues in the 107th Congress: An Overview

Clean Water Issues in the 107th Congress: An Overview

Date: January 5, 2001
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: Key water quality issues that may face the 107th Congress include: actions to implement existing provisions of the Clean Water Act, whether additional steps are necessary to achieve overall goals of the Act, and the appropriate federal role in guiding and paying for clean water activities. This Act is the principal law that deals with polluting activity in the nation’s lakes, rivers, and coastal waters and authorizes funds to aid construction of municipal wastewater treatment plants. Legislative prospects for comprehensively amending it have been stalled over whether and exactly how to change the law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors

The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors

Date: January 5, 2001
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides for the listing and protection of species that are found to be “endangered” or “threatened” – species that might become extinct. The listing of a species as endangered triggers the prohibitions in the Act against “taking” (killing or harming) individuals of the protected species, unless a permit is obtained to take individuals incidental to an otherwise lawful proposed action, or an exemption for the proposed action is obtained. Unauthorized taking of a listed species can result in civil or criminal penalties. These prohibitions and potential penalties can affect various activities, including development and use of land, with attendant economic impacts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Social Security Reform: Bills in the 106th Congress

Social Security Reform: Bills in the 106th Congress

Date: January 5, 2001
Creator: Koitz, David Stuart & Kollmann, Geoffrey
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Generalized System of Preferences

Generalized System of Preferences

Date: January 8, 2001
Creator: Cooper, William H
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department