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 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Police Shootings and Federal Support for Law Enforcement Safety

Police Shootings and Federal Support for Law Enforcement Safety

Date: July 19, 2016
Creator: James, Nathan
Description: This report discusses federal support for law enforcement safety in light of the recent shooting deaths of police officers in Dallas, Texas, and Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Circuit Rules on Trademarks Considered Offensive: May Affect Redskins Trademark Dispute

The Federal Circuit Rules on Trademarks Considered Offensive: May Affect Redskins Trademark Dispute

Date: August 8, 2016
Creator: unknown
Description: This legal sidebar examines cases involving the revocation of the Washington Redskins' federally-registered trademarks (Pro-Football, Inc. v. Blackhorse) and the refusal to grant registration for a rock band's name (In re Tam). These cases raise questions about the constitutionality of Section 2(a) of the Trademark Act of 1946 (conventionally known as the Lanham Act), which denies trademark registration to certain offensive content.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Recent State Election Law Challenges: In Brief

Recent State Election Law Challenges: In Brief

Date: November 2, 2016
Creator: Whitaker, L. P.
Description: This report begins by setting forth key constitutional provisions relevant to recent state election law challenges. Next, it discusses federal statutory provisions contained in the Voting Rights Act and the National Voter Registration Act and briefly examines pertinent Supreme Court precedent. Then, based on that legal framework, it provides an overview of several recent challenges to state election laws in Michigan, North Carolina, Ohio, and Texas that resulted in major decisions by the various federal courts of appeals as illustrative examples of the types of challenges that have been playing out in the courts. Finally, the report discusses some potential implications of these challenges.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Policy: 114th Congress Issues

Energy Policy: 114th Congress Issues

Date: September 30, 2016
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report begins by providing background on the economic rationale for energy market interventions; it highlights various market failures production and consumption of energy, and discusses possible interventions. The report concludes with an analysis of the current status of energy tax policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sea-Level Rise and U.S. Coasts: Science and Policy Considerations

Sea-Level Rise and U.S. Coasts: Science and Policy Considerations

Date: September 12, 2016
Creator: Folger, Peter & Carter, Nicole T.
Description: This report provides information for policymakers that are interested in sea-level rise because of the risk to coastal populations and infrastructure and the consequences for coastal species and ecosystems.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 114th Congress

Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 114th Congress

Date: September 9, 2016
Creator: Bruno, Andorra; Argueta, Carla N.; Bjelopera, Jerome P.; Garcia, Michael John; Kandel, William A. & Siskin, Alison
Description: This report discusses border security, interior enforcement, visa security, asylum, and other immigration-related issues that have received legislative action or are of significant congressional interest in the 114th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Power Plan: Legal Background and Pending Litigation in West Virginia v. EPA

Clean Power Plan: Legal Background and Pending Litigation in West Virginia v. EPA

Date: August 8, 2016
Creator: Wyatt, Alexandra M.
Description: This report provides legal background on the Clean Power Plan rule (CPP or Rule) to regulate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), its Clean Air Act (CAA) framework under Section 111, and climate-related lawsuits that have preceded the present litigation over the CPP. It then gives an overview of the participants in the current litigation, including two groups of Members of Congress, who have offered briefs in support of the petitioners and the respondents, respectively.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
State Challenges to Federal Enforcement of Immigration Law: From the Mid-1990s to the Present

State Challenges to Federal Enforcement of Immigration Law: From the Mid-1990s to the Present

Date: August 1, 2016
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.
Description: This report provides an overview of challenges by states to federal officials' alleged failure to enforce provisions of immigration law. It begins by discussing (1) the lawsuits filed by six states in the mid-1990s; (2) Arizona's counterclaims to the federal government's suit to enjoin enforcement of S.B. 1070; and (3) Mississippi's challenge to the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) initiative. It then describes the challenge brought by over 25 states or state officials in December 2014 to the Obama Administration's proposal to expand DACA and create a similar program for unauthorized aliens whose children are U.S. citizens or lawful permanent resident aliens (LPRs) (commonly known as DAPA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Corporate Inversions: Frequently Asked Legal Questions

Corporate Inversions: Frequently Asked Legal Questions

Date: September 7, 2016
Creator: Lunder, Erika K.
Description: This report answers frequently-asked legal questions about corporate inversions. It answers questions relating to the scope and operation of Section 7874, including how key statutory terms have been interpreted by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). It discusses important Department of Treasury regulations that were finalized in 2015 and 2016, and answers questions about the IRS's authority to issue these regulations. Other questions that are answered relate to legislation introduced in the 114th Congress, the interaction of Section 7874 with tax treaties, and the imposition of an excise tax on corporate insiders who benefit from an inversion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
State Voter Identification Requirements: Analysis, Legal Issues, and Policy Considerations

State Voter Identification Requirements: Analysis, Legal Issues, and Policy Considerations

Date: October 21, 2016
Creator: Fischer, Eric A.; Garrett, R. S. & Whitaker, L. P.
Description: This report provides an updated overview of state requirements for voters to present some form of ID before casting a ballot in a federal election. The report also discusses the origins of voter ID, relevant federal legislative action in the 114th Congress, and selected legal and policy issues related to state voter ID laws.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Post-Heller Second Amendment Jurisprudence

Post-Heller Second Amendment Jurisprudence

Date: September 7, 2016
Creator: Herman, Sarah S.
Description: This report examines the scope of the Second Amendment, as interpreted by the federal circuit courts of appeals, after the watershed Supreme Court decisions in District of Columbia v. Heller and McDonald v. City of Chicago.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Extraterritorial Application of American Criminal Law

Extraterritorial Application of American Criminal Law

Date: October 31, 2016
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: This report discusses the application of American criminal law outside the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Abridged Sketch of Extradition To and From the United States

An Abridged Sketch of Extradition To and From the United States

Date: October 4, 2016
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: This report discusses "extradition", which is the formal surrender of a person by a State to another State for prosecution or punishment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: August 8, 2016
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress, and refers readers to more in-depth CRS reports on specific Arctic-related issues. Some general issues include Arctic territorial disputes; commercial shipping through the Arctic; Arctic oil, gas, and mineral exploration; endangered Arctic species; and increased military operations in the Arctic, which could cause the region in coming years to become an arena of international cooperation or competition.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Evolution of the Meaning of "Waters of the United States" in the Clean Water Act

Evolution of the Meaning of "Waters of the United States" in the Clean Water Act

Date: August 8, 2016
Creator: Mulligan, Stephen P.
Description: This report examines the changing definition of the phrase, "waters of the United States." The scope of waters that are properly the subject of federal water pollution legislation has been the subject of long-standing consideration by all three branches of the federal government, particularly in the aftermath of the 1972 amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, commonly referred to as the Clean Water Act.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Treatment of Noncitizens Under the Affordable Care Act

Treatment of Noncitizens Under the Affordable Care Act

Date: October 27, 2016
Creator: Siskin, Alison
Description: This report provides information regarding the treatment of noncitizens under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) including definitions of "lawfully present," the health insurance mandate, exchanges, and ACA changes to Medicaid. It also discusses the verification of alien status under the ACA and related legislation in the 113th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intellectual Property Rights Violations: Federal Civil Remedies and Criminal Penalties Related to Copyrights, Trademarks, Patents, and Trade Secrets

Intellectual Property Rights Violations: Federal Civil Remedies and Criminal Penalties Related to Copyrights, Trademarks, Patents, and Trade Secrets

Date: May 27, 2016
Creator: Yeh, Brian T.
Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on multiyear procurement (MYP) and block buy contracting (BBC), which are special contracting mechanisms that Congress permits the Department of Defense (DOD) to use for a limited number of defense acquisition programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress

Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress

Date: April 27, 2016
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on maritime territorial and exclusive economic zone (EEZ) disputes in the East China (ECS) and South China Sea (SCS) involving China, with a focus on how these disputes may affect U.S. strategic and policy interests.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The World Drug Problem: UNGA Convenes for a Special Session

The World Drug Problem: UNGA Convenes for a Special Session

Date: April 20, 2016
Creator: Rosen, Liana W.
Description: This report briefly discusses the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), which has convened in New York for a special session on "The World Drug Problem." It is the third time the UNGA will convene such a session on global drug issues. Previous special sessions on drugs were held in 1990 and 1998.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act of 2016 (S. 524): Comparison of Senate- and House-Passed Versions

The Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act of 2016 (S. 524): Comparison of Senate- and House-Passed Versions

Date: May 23, 2016
Creator: Bagalman, Erin & Sacco, Lisa N.
Description: This report discusses selected differences and similarities between the Senate- and House-passed versions of the Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act of 2016 (CARA; S. 524), which aims to address the problem of opioid addiction in the United States. The two versions of the bill differ substantially. The scope of the differences may be illustrated by their structures: The Senate bill has 28 sections organized in 8 titles, whereas the House bill has 69 sections organized in 18 titles.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EPA Policies Concerning Integrated Planning and Affordability of Water Infrastructure

EPA Policies Concerning Integrated Planning and Affordability of Water Infrastructure

Date: May 2, 2016
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report examines two recent initiatives by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in which the agency works with states to develop and implement new approaches for water quality goals that will be more cost-effective and address the most pressing water infrastructure problems first. The examples include an integrated planning policy and a framework policy for assessing a community's financial capability to meet objectives and requirements of the Clean Water Act (CWA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legislative Options for Financing Water Infrastructure

Legislative Options for Financing Water Infrastructure

Date: June 1, 2016
Creator: Copeland, Claudia; Maguire, Steven & Mallett, William J.
Description: This report discusses several options considered by Congress to address the financing needs of local communities for wastewater and drinking water infrastructure projects and to decrease or close the gap between available funds and projected needs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 108th Congress

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 108th Congress

Date: November 1, 2004
Creator: Corn, M. L.; Gelb, Bernard A. & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses one major element of the energy debate in the 108th Congress, which has been whether to approve energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in northeastern Alaska, and if so, under what conditions, or whether to continue to prohibit development to protect the area's biological resources. The Refuge is an area rich in fauna, flora, and commercial oil potential. Current law forbids energy leasing in the Refuge.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Majority, Concurring, and Dissenting Opinions Authored by Judge Merrick Garland

Majority, Concurring, and Dissenting Opinions Authored by Judge Merrick Garland

Date: May 2, 2016
Creator: Mason, R. C.
Description: This report identifies and briefly summarizes each of the more than 350 cases in which Judge Garland has authored a majority, concurring, or dissenting opinion. Arguably, these written opinions provide the greatest insight into Judge Garland's judicial approach, as a judge's vote in a case or decision to join an opinion authored by a colleague may be based upon a number of considerations and may not necessarily represent full agreement with a joined opinion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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