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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Clean Water Act and Pollutant Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs)

Clean Water Act and Pollutant Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs)

Date: January 17, 2014
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses the total maximum daily load (TMDL) program which regulates pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained; section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. The report focuses on new challenges facing the TMDL program, including more complex TMDLs, larger scale impairments, and nonpoint sources.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer

Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer

Date: January 27, 2014
Creator: Kerr, Paul K. & Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: This report discusses section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the specific requirements of which must be met in order for the United States to engage in civilian nuclear cooperation with other states. The AEA also provides for exemptions to these requirements, export control licensing procedures, and criteria for terminating cooperation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran: U.S. Economic Sanctions and the Authority to Lift Restrictions

Iran: U.S. Economic Sanctions and the Authority to Lift Restrictions

Date: February 4, 2014
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E.
Description: This report identifies the legislative bases for sanctions imposed on Iran, and the nature of the authority to waive or lift those restrictions. It comprises two tables that present legislation and executive orders that are specific to Iran and its objectionable activities in the areas of terrorism, human rights, and weapons proliferation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nonimmigrant Overstays: Brief Synthesis of the Issue

Nonimmigrant Overstays: Brief Synthesis of the Issue

Date: January 22, 2014
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report discusses a fundamental problem of immigration control in which foreign nationals enter legally on a temporary basis and continue to stay after their visas expire.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Leahy-Smith America Invents Act: Innovation Issues

The Leahy-Smith America Invents Act: Innovation Issues

Date: January 15, 2014
Creator: Thomas, John R.
Description: This report provides an overview of the the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (AIA). It begins by offering a brief overview of the patent system, then identifies and reviews the specific components of this legislation in greater detail. The report closes with further considerations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Controversies over Redefining "Fill Material" Under the Clean Water Act

Controversies over Redefining "Fill Material" Under the Clean Water Act

Date: January 23, 2014
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses the 2002 rule (the Clean Water Act), focusing on how it changes which material and types of activities are regulated under Section 404 and the significance of these issues, especially for the mining industry.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Follow-On Biologics: The Law and Intellectual Property Issues

Follow-On Biologics: The Law and Intellectual Property Issues

Date: January 15, 2014
Creator: Thomas, John R.
Description: This report reviews the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 (BPCIA), within the context of intellectual property and innovation issues. It provides an introduction to the biologics industry, introduces the regulatory and intellectual property provisions of the BPCIA, considers the potential market for biosimilars and possible industry responses that may arise in the wake of this legislation, and closes with concluding observations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: January 15, 2014
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides examples, based on a wide range of open source reporting, of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: January 31, 2014
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the recent development regarding the negotiations with Iran about its nuclear program. It provides background information on Iranian nuclear program and debates the November 24 Joint Plan of Action Elements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Food Fraud and "Economically Motivated Adulteration" of Food and Food Ingredients

Food Fraud and "Economically Motivated Adulteration" of Food and Food Ingredients

Date: January 10, 2014
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Description: This report discusses food fraud, or the act of defrauding buyers of food and food ingredients for economic gain. It includes background information, an overview of available data and information repositories related to food fraud, federal activities involving food fraud, and Congressional actions involving food fraud.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Social Security Number: Legal Developments Affecting Its Collection, Disclosure, and Confidentiality

The Social Security Number: Legal Developments Affecting Its Collection, Disclosure, and Confidentiality

Date: February 4, 2014
Creator: Swendiman, Kathleen S. & Lanza, Emily M.
Description: This report provides a comprehensive list of federal developments affecting use of the social security number, from 1935 to the present. This list includes federal statutes regulating the collection and disclosure of SSNs, as well as specific authorizations for the use of SSNs, confidentiality provisions, and criminal provisions relating to SSN misuse.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Defense Production Act of 1950: History, Authorities, and Reauthorization

The Defense Production Act of 1950: History, Authorities, and Reauthorization

Date: June 14, 2013
Creator: Brown, Jared T. & Else, Daniel H.
Description: This report examines some of the history of the Defense Production Act of 1950 (DPA), focusing primarily on its creation and most recent legislative reauthorization. It also discusses the foremost active authorities of the DPA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA): A Summary of the Act and Its Major Requirements

Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA): A Summary of the Act and Its Major Requirements

Date: February 5, 2014
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report summarizes the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and its major programs and regulatory requirements. This report includes the drinking water security provisions added to the SDWA by the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-188), and lead reduction provisions as amended by P.L. 111-380. It also outlines amendments made in December 2013 by P.L. 113-64 (H.R. 3588) to explicitly exempt fire hydrants from coverage under the act's lead plumbing restrictions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: February 14, 2014
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress and refers readers to more in-depth CRS reports on specific relevant topics.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Transportation Spending and "Buy America" Requirements

Transportation Spending and "Buy America" Requirements

Date: February 4, 2014
Creator: Dolan, Alissa M.
Description: This report discusses the Buy America Act, the popular name for a group of domestic content restrictions that have been attached to funds administered by the Department of Transportation (DOT).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: February 27, 2014
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress and refers readers to more in-depth CRS reports on specific relevant topics.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) Negotiations

Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) Negotiations

Date: February 4, 2014
Creator: Akhtar, Shayerah Ilias & Jones, Vivian C.
Description: This report provides: (1) context for the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) negotiations; (2) analysis of possible trade and investment issues in the negotiations; and (3) discussion of issues for Congress. The U.S.-EU negotiations on TTIP are not public, however, the information and analysis in this report on issues in the negotiations are based on publicly-available information.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress

Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress

Date: March 14, 2014
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report presents policy and oversight issues for Congress arising from maritime territorial disputes involving China in the South China Sea (SCS), East China Sea (ECS), and an additional dispute over whether China has a right under international law to regulate U.S. and other foreign military activities in its maritime Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: March 18, 2014
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the recent development regarding the negotiations with Iran about its nuclear program. It provides background information on Iranian nuclear program and debates the November 24 Joint Plan of Action Elements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
What Is the Farm Bill?

What Is the Farm Bill?

Date: March 12, 2014
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Description: This report describes the Farm Bill (P.L. 110-246, Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008), which was enacted into law on June 18, 2008.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF): Program Overview and Issues

Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF): Program Overview and Issues

Date: April 10, 2014
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report discusses the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996, which authorized a drinking water state revolving loan fund (DWSRF) program. The program was intended to help public water systems finance infrastructure projects that were needed to comply with federal drinking water regulations and to meet the Act's health objectives. It includes an overview of funding, allotments and set-asides, drinking water infrastructure needs, program issues, and legislative activity.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy-Water Nexus: The Water Sector's Energy Use

Energy-Water Nexus: The Water Sector's Energy Use

Date: March 24, 2014
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report provides background on energy for facilities that treat and deliver water to end users and also dispose of and discharge wastewater. This report first discusses water-related energy use broadly and then energy for facilities that treat and deliver water to end users and also dispose of and discharge wastewater.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy and Water Development: FY2014 Appropriations

Energy and Water Development: FY2014 Appropriations

Date: February 25, 2014
Creator: Behrens, Carl E.
Description: This report discusses the Energy and Water Development appropriations bill that provides funding for civil works projects of the Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), for the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), the Department of Energy (DOE), and several independent agencies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Quality Issues in the 113th Congress: An Overview

Water Quality Issues in the 113th Congress: An Overview

Date: March 21, 2014
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses the legislative and oversight issues regarding water quality, as well as wastewater treatment funding issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department