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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress

Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress

Date: October 22, 2012
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report presents policy and oversight issues for Congress arising from (1) maritime territorial disputes involving China in the South China Sea (SCS) and East China Sea (ECS) and (2) an additional dispute over whether China has a right under international law to regulate U.S. and other foreign military activities in its 200-nautical-mile maritime Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Date: September 5, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the effects of economic sanctions against Iran; support to the Iranian democracy movement; and opposition against Iranian human rights violations and Iranian support for Syrian human rights violations. The Obama Administration identifies Iran as a major threat to U.S. national security interests. The sense of imminent crisis with Iran which greeted the beginning of 2012 follows three years in which the Obama Administration first offered Iran's leaders consistent and sustained engagement in exchange for limits to its nuclear program but, since 2010, has emphasized pressuring Iran through economic sanctions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Drug Control Policy: Background and U.S. Responses

International Drug Control Policy: Background and U.S. Responses

Date: October 16, 2012
Creator: Wyler, Liana Sun
Description: This report discusses challenges created by the global illegal drug trade, including: undermining political and regional stability, bolstering the role and capabilities of transnational criminal organizations in the drug trade, and the burden caused by drug use an addition on local communities and economic development. In addition, this report discusses U.S. policy efforts to thwart illegal drug trade.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Overview of the "Patent Trolls" Debate

An Overview of the "Patent Trolls" Debate

Date: August 20, 2012
Creator: Yeh, Brian T.
Description: This report reviews the current debate and controversy surrounding "patent assertion entities" (PAEs) and their effect on innovation, examines the reasons for the rise in PAE litigation, and explores the legislative options available to Congress if it decides that these are issues that should be addressed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act

Reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act

Date: September 12, 2012
Creator: Liu, Edward C.
Description: This report describes the changes that were made by the FISA Amendments Act within the context of the government's authority to conduct surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Positive Train Control (PTC): Overview and Policy Issues

Positive Train Control (PTC): Overview and Policy Issues

Date: July 30, 2012
Creator: Peters, Jeffrey C. & Frittelli, John
Description: This report gives and overview of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 and discusses policy issues related to it. Congress passed the Act following several high-profile train accidents; it mandates positive train control (PTC) on many passenger and freight railroads by December 31, 2015.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Posse Comitatus Act and Related Matters: A Sketch

The Posse Comitatus Act and Related Matters: A Sketch

Date: August 21, 2012
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Description: This report examines instances, as approved by Congress, where circumstances warrant a departure from the general rule of the Posse Comitatus Act, wherein the military is typically prevented from direct involvement in civilian affairs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer

Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer

Date: January 11, 2011
Creator: Kerr, Paul K. & Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: This report discusses section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the specific requirements of which must be met in order for the United States to engage in civilian nuclear cooperation with other states. The AEA also provides for exemptions to these requirements, export control licensing procedures, and criteria for terminating cooperation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: September 13, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides examples of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran, based on a wide range of open-source reporting.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arizona v. United States: A Limited Role for States in Immigration Enforcement

Arizona v. United States: A Limited Role for States in Immigration Enforcement

Date: September 10, 2012
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Garcia, Michael John
Description: Report that discusses the Supreme Court's ruling in Arizona v. United States, and considers the implications that the decision may have for immigration enforcement activity by states and localities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Bayh-Dole Act: Selected Issues in Patent Policy and the Commercialization of Technology

The Bayh-Dole Act: Selected Issues in Patent Policy and the Commercialization of Technology

Date: December 3, 2012
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Description: Report that discusses the rationale behind the passage of P.L. 96-517, its provisions, and implementation of the law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Banning the Use of Racial Preferences in Higher Education: A Legal Analysis of Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action

Banning the Use of Racial Preferences in Higher Education: A Legal Analysis of Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action

Date: September 3, 2013
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: This report discusses the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Laws based on suspect classifications such as race or gender, however, typically receive heightened scrutiny and require a stronger, if not compelling, state interest to justify the classification.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Communications Commission: Current Structure and Its Role in the Changing Telecommunications Landscape

The Federal Communications Commission: Current Structure and Its Role in the Changing Telecommunications Landscape

Date: July 18, 2013
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Description: The report discusses the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)-Related Congressional Actions in the 112th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Policy: 113th Congress Issues

Energy Policy: 113th Congress Issues

Date: July 25, 2013
Creator: Behrens, Carl E.
Description: Report that discusses the energy policy in the United States, which is focused on three major goals: assuring a secure supply of energy, keeping energy costs low, and protecting the environment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drug Testing and Crime-Related Restrictions in TANF, SNAP, and Housing Assistance

Drug Testing and Crime-Related Restrictions in TANF, SNAP, and Housing Assistance

Date: July 30, 2013
Creator: McCarty, Maggie; Aussenberg, Randy Alison; Falk, Gene & Carpenter, David H.
Description: This report describes and compares the drug- and crime-related policy restrictions contained in selected federal programs that provide assistance to low-income individuals and families: the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps), and the three primary federal housing assistance programs (the public housing program, the Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher program, and the project-based Section 8 rental assistance program).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Tax Policy: Issues in the 113th Congress

Energy Tax Policy: Issues in the 113th Congress

Date: September 4, 2013
Creator: Sherlock, Molly F.
Description: This report discusses the energy tax policy that may also be considered as part of comprehensive tax reform legislation in the 113th Congress. Also the report discusses a number of other energy tax incentives, including provisions to support building energy efficiency and renewable fuels, that are also scheduled to expire at the end of 2013.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2014

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2014

Date: September 5, 2013
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Description: This report provides government-wide, multi-agency, and individual agency analyses of the President's FY2014 request as it relates to R&D and related activities. The President's budget seeks $142.773 billion for R&D in FY2014, a 1.3% increase (0.7% CAGR) over the actual FY2012 R&D funding level of $140.912 billion. Adjusted for inflation, the President's FY2014 R&D request represents a decrease of 2.6% from the FY2012 level (1.3% CAGR).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Rulemaking Process: An Overview

The Federal Rulemaking Process: An Overview

Date: June 17, 2013
Creator: Carey, Maeve P.
Description: The purpose of this report is to provide Congress with an overview of the federal rulemaking process and a brief discussion of the major laws and executive orders that prescribe the procedures agencies are to apply when promulgating regulations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Permitting and Oversight of Export of Fossil Fuels

Federal Permitting and Oversight of Export of Fossil Fuels

Date: September 17, 2013
Creator: Vann, Adam; Shedd, Daniel T. & Murrill, Brandon J.
Description: This report reviews federal laws and the regulatory regime governing the export of natural gas, crude oil, and coal.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Independent Counsels, Special Prosecutors, Special Counsels, and the Role of Congress

Independent Counsels, Special Prosecutors, Special Counsels, and the Role of Congress

Date: June 20, 2013
Creator: Maskell, Jack
Description: Report that provides information on the procedure for the appointment of an "independent counsel," a "special prosecutor," or a "special counsel" to investigate and prosecute potential or possible violations of federal criminal law by officials in the executive branch of the federal government and in federal agencies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration Detainers: Legal Issues

Immigration Detainers: Legal Issues

Date: May 29, 2013
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.
Description: Report that provides background information regarding the Immigration and Naturalization Service rules and regulations and discusses the "immigration detainer", a document by which U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) advises other law enforcement agencies that it seeks custody of individual aliens whom these agencies are detaining.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration Detainers: Legal Issues

Immigration Detainers: Legal Issues

Date: August 31, 2012
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.
Description: Report that surveys the various authorities governing immigration detainers, including the standard detainer form (Form I-247) sent by ICE to other law enforcement agencies. The report also discusses key legal issues raised by immigration detainers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: January 11, 2011
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Report that focuses on the United States' relationship with Iran and how the Obama Administration is handling prior administration's economic sanctions against Iran.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: June 13, 2013
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Report that analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and, in so doing, provides examples, based on a wide range of open source reporting, of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran. It also discusses the effectiveness of sanctions on Iran.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department