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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2013
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
International Law and Agreements: Their Effect Upon U.S. Law

International Law and Agreements: Their Effect Upon U.S. Law

Date: March 1, 2013
Creator: Garcia, Michael J.
Description: This report provides an introduction to the roles that international law and agreements play in the United States. International law is derived from two primary sources — international agreements and customary practice.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Independent Counsels, Special Prosecutors, Special Counsels, and the Role of Congress

Independent Counsels, Special Prosecutors, Special Counsels, and the Role of Congress

Date: June 20, 2013
Creator: Maskell, Jack
Description: Report that provides information on the procedure for the appointment of an "independent counsel," a "special prosecutor," or a "special counsel" to investigate and prosecute potential or possible violations of federal criminal law by officials in the executive branch of the federal government and in federal agencies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy and Water Development: FY2014 Appropriations

Energy and Water Development: FY2014 Appropriations

Date: November 1, 2013
Creator: Behrens, Carl E.
Description: This report discusses the Energy and Water Development appropriations bill that provides funding for civil works projects of the Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), for the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), the Department of Energy (DOE), and several independent agencies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Prosecutorial Discretion in Immigration Enforcement: Legal Issues

Prosecutorial Discretion in Immigration Enforcement: Legal Issues

Date: January 17, 2013
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Garvey, Todd
Description: This report begins by discussing the sources of federal power to regulate immigration and, particularly, the allocation of power between Congress and the President in this area. It next addresses the constitutional and other foundations for the doctrine of prosecutorial discretion, as well as the potential ways in which prosecutorial discretion may be exercised in the immigration context. It concludes by addressing potential constitutional, statutory, and administrative constraints upon the exercise of prosecutorial discretion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Defense Production Act of 1950: History, Authorities, and Reauthorization

The Defense Production Act of 1950: History, Authorities, and Reauthorization

Date: June 14, 2013
Creator: Brown, Jared T. & Else, Daniel H.
Description: This report examines some of the history of the Defense Production Act of 1950 (DPA), focusing primarily on its creation and most recent legislative reauthorization. It also discusses the foremost active authorities of the DPA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Justice: Courts-Martial, an Overview

Military Justice: Courts-Martial, an Overview

Date: August 12, 2013
Creator: Mason, Chuck R.
Description: This report gives a detailed overview of the military court-martial system, including a discussion of the three types of court-martials: summary, special, and general. It includes a chart showing procedural safeguards in federal and military courts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
"Sense of" Resolutions and Provisions

"Sense of" Resolutions and Provisions

Date: March 11, 2013
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Description: This report discusses the "Sense of" resolutions, which are considered under the normal legislative processes of each chamber applicable to any other legislative vehicle.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Financial Market Supervision: Canada's Perspective

Financial Market Supervision: Canada's Perspective

Date: April 4, 2013
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report presents an overview of Canada's financial system and its supervisory framework and draws some distinctions between that system and the current U.S. framework.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Brief History of Comprehensive Immigration Reform Efforts in the 109th and 110th Congresses to Inform Policy Discussions in the 113th Congress

Brief History of Comprehensive Immigration Reform Efforts in the 109th and 110th Congresses to Inform Policy Discussions in the 113th Congress

Date: February 27, 2013
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report opens with brief legislative histories of "comprehensive immigration reform" (CIR) in the 109th and 110th Congresses. A comparative overview of key CIR provisions in the three bills that received floor action in the 109th and 110th Congresses follows. In addition to a narrative discussion of how the bills addressed the main provisions of CIR, the report provides a table that presents a comparative summary of the key features of the bills. The report concludes with observations contrasting the 2006-2007 period with the context of today's CIR debate. The report also provides an appendix that summarizes the three major CIR bills.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drones in Domestic Surveillance Operations: Fourth Amendment Implications and Legislative Responses

Drones in Domestic Surveillance Operations: Fourth Amendment Implications and Legislative Responses

Date: April 3, 2013
Creator: Thompson, Richard M., II
Description: This report first explores the potential uses of drones in the domestic sphere by federal, state, and local governments. It then surveys current Fourth Amendment jurisprudence, including cases surrounding privacy in the home, privacy in public spaces, location tracking, manned aerial surveillance, and those involving the national border. Next, it considers how existing jurisprudence may inform current and proposed drone uses. It then describes the various legislative measures introduced in the 113th Congress to address the legal and policy issues surrounding drones. Finally, it briefly identifies several alternative approaches that may constrain the potential scope of drone surveillance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Integration of Drones into Domestic Airspace: Selected Legal Issues

Integration of Drones into Domestic Airspace: Selected Legal Issues

Date: January 30, 2013
Creator: Dolan, Alissa M.
Description: This report describes the regulatory framework for permitting the use of unmanned vehicles and the potential rulemaking that will occur over the next few years. It also discusses theories of takings and property torts as they relate to drone flights over or near private property and the privacy interests implicated by drone surveillance conducted by private actors and the potential countervailing First Amendment rights to gather and receive news. Finally, this report explores possible congressional responses to these privacy concerns, discusses how the FAA has approached these concerns, and identifies additional potential legal issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
SBA Surety Bond Guarantee Program

SBA Surety Bond Guarantee Program

Date: December 11, 2013
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Description: This report examines the program's origin and development, including the decision to (1) supplement the original Prior Approval Program with the Preferred Surety Bond Guarantee Program that provides a lower guarantee rate (70%) than the Prior Approval Program (80% or 90%) in exchange for allowing preferred sureties to issue SBA-guaranteed surety bonds without the SBA's prior approval; and (2) increase the program's bond limit.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Integration of Drones into Domestic Airspace: Selected Legal Issues

Integration of Drones into Domestic Airspace: Selected Legal Issues

Date: April 4, 2013
Creator: Dolan, Alissa M. & Thompson, Richard M., II
Description: This report describes the regulatory framework for permitting the use of unmanned vehicles and the potential rulemaking that will occur over the next few years. It also discusses theories of takings and property torts as they relate to drone flights over or near private property and the privacy interests implicated by drone surveillance conducted by private actors and the potential countervailing First Amendment rights to gather and receive news. Finally, this report explores possible congressional responses to these privacy concerns, discusses how the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has approached these concerns, and identifies additional potential legal issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Comprehensive Immigration Reform in the 113th Congress: Short Summary of Senate- Passed S. 744

Comprehensive Immigration Reform in the 113th Congress: Short Summary of Senate- Passed S. 744

Date: July 10, 2013
Creator: Rosenblum, Marc R. & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: Report that summarizes major immigration reform provisions of S. 744, as passed by the Senate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Overview of Judicial Review of Immigration Matters

An Overview of Judicial Review of Immigration Matters

Date: September 11, 2013
Creator: Mikyung Lee, Margaret
Description: This report will summarize judicial review for immigration matters, including visa denials and revocations; removal orders and detention; naturalization delays, denials, and revocations; expatriation; and legalization denials. Administrative adjudications such as removal proceedings or determination of immigration benefits such as naturalization are beyond the scope of this report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Family-Based Immigration Policy

U.S. Family-Based Immigration Policy

Date: July 11, 2013
Creator: Kandel, William A.
Description: Report that provides background information and discussion related to immigration issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Public Safety Officers' Benefits (PSOB) Program

Public Safety Officers' Benefits (PSOB) Program

Date: November 19, 2013
Creator: James, Nathan
Description: This report discusses the public safety officers' benefits (PSOB) program that provides three different types of benefits to public safety officers and their survivors: a death, a disability, and an education benefit.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Equity: Legislative and Legal Developments

Pay Equity: Legislative and Legal Developments

Date: November 22, 2013
Creator: Collins, Benjamin & Feder, Jody
Description: This report discusses pay equity litigation, including Wal-Mart Stores v. Dukes, a case in which the Supreme Court rejected class action status for current and former female Wal-Mart employees who allege that the company has engaged in pay discrimination.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Length of Time from Nomination to Confirmation for U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominees: Overview and Policy Options to Shorten the Process

Length of Time from Nomination to Confirmation for U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominees: Overview and Policy Options to Shorten the Process

Date: November 20, 2013
Creator: McMillion, Barry J.
Description: This report seeks to inform the current debate over the nomination and confirmation for U.S. circuit and district court nominees in three ways: first, by providing an overview of the time taken by the Senate during recent presidencies to confirm U.S. circuit and district court nominees; second, by identifying potential consequences of a protracted confirmation process for such nominees; and third, by identifying policy options the Senate might consider to shorten the length of time from nomination to confirmation for U.S. circuit and district court nominees.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EPA Regulations: Too Much, Too Little, or On Track?

EPA Regulations: Too Much, Too Little, or On Track?

Date: December 12, 2013
Creator: McCarthy, James E. & Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report provides background information on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory activity during the Obama Administration to help address these issues. It examines major or controversial regulatory actions taken by or under development at EPA since January 2009, providing details on the regulatory action itself, presenting an estimated timeline for completion of the rule (including identification of related court or statutory deadlines), and, in general, providing EPA's estimates of costs and benefits, where available. The report includes tables that show which rules remain under development, and an appendix that describes major or controversial rules that are now final.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2014 Appropriations

Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2014 Appropriations

Date: November 4, 2013
Creator: James, Nathan; Williams, Jennifer D. & Sargent, John F., Jr.
Description: This report will track and describe actions taken by the Administration and Congress to provide FY2014 appropriations for Commerce, Justice, and Science (CJS) accounts. It also provides an overview of FY2013 appropriations for agencies and bureaus funded as a part of the annual appropriation for CJS.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Proposed Equal Rights Amendment: Contemporary Ratification Issues

The Proposed Equal Rights Amendment: Contemporary Ratification Issues

Date: May 9, 2013
Creator: Neale, Thomas H.
Description: This report examines the legislative history of the various proposals that ultimately emerged as the proposed Equal Rights Amendment and both identifies and provides an analysis of contemporary factors that may bear on its present and future viability.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Proposed Equal Rights Amendment: Contemporary Ratification Issues

The Proposed Equal Rights Amendment: Contemporary Ratification Issues

Date: February 28, 2013
Creator: Neale, Thomas H.
Description: This report examines the legislative history of the various proposals that ultimately emerged as the proposed Equal Rights Amendment and both identifies and provides an analysis of contemporary factors that may bear on its present and future viability.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nondiscrimination in Environmental Regulation: A Legal Analysis

Nondiscrimination in Environmental Regulation: A Legal Analysis

Date: February 6, 2013
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Description: This report will examine the relevant legal authorities that may be asserted to address disproportionate impacts that result from how an agency implements environmental regulations, including the Equal Protection Clause of the U.S. Constitution, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and various environmental and conservation statutes. It will discuss administrative efforts to address "environmental justice," a term used by some advocates to refer to the distribution of environmental quality across various demographic groups, including the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Plan EJ 2014. It will also analyze the use of these authorities to prevent such impacts and the likelihood of success for future challenges under each legal theory.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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