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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2010
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Environmental Considerations in Federal Procurement: An Overview of the Legal Authorities and Their Implementation

Environmental Considerations in Federal Procurement: An Overview of the Legal Authorities and Their Implementation

Date: June 21, 2010
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Halchin, L. Elaine
Description: This report discusses issues about the role of environmental considerations in federal procurement. These include: to what extent do agencies consider environmental factors when procuring goods or services? What legal authorities presently require or allow agencies to take environmental factors into account when acquiring goods or services?
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federalism Issues in Surface Transportation Policy: Past and Present

Federalism Issues in Surface Transportation Policy: Past and Present

Date: March 22, 2010
Creator: Dilger, Robert J.
Description: This report provides a historical perspective on contemporary federalism issues in surface transportation policy that are likely to be addressed by Congress during the 111th Congress, including possible devolution of programmatic responsibility to states and proposals to change state maintenance-of-effort requirements and state cost matching requirements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federalism Issues in Surface Transportation Policy: Past and Present

Federalism Issues in Surface Transportation Policy: Past and Present

Date: January 5, 2010
Creator: Dilger, Robert J.
Description: This report provides a historical perspective on contemporary federalism issues in surface transportation policy that are likely to be addressed by Congress during the 111th Congress, including possible devolution of programmatic responsibility to states and proposals to change state maintenance-of-effort requirements and state cost matching requirements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (USTs): Prevention and Cleanup

Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (USTs): Prevention and Cleanup

Date: April 20, 2010
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report addresses a nationwide water pollution problem caused by leaking underground storage tanks (USTs). The report discusses key issue that state resources have not met the demands of administering the underground storage tanks (UST) leak prevention program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Telework for Executive Agency Employees: A Side-by-Side Comparison of Legislation Pending in the 111th Congress

Telework for Executive Agency Employees: A Side-by-Side Comparison of Legislation Pending in the 111th Congress

Date: March 30, 2010
Creator: Schwemle, Barbara L.
Description: The 111th Congress is considering legislation (S. 707 and H.R. 1722) to foster the development of telework in executive agencies of the federal government. Legislation to augment telework in executive agencies of the federal government is currently pending in the 111th Congress. S. 707, the Telework Enhancement Act of 2009, and H.R. 1722, the Telework Improvements Act of 2010, were introduced on March 25, 2009, by Senator Daniel Akaka and Representative John Sarbanes, respectively. This report presents a side-by-side comparison of the provisions of S. 707, as reported, and H.R. 1722, as ordered to be reported.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Telework for Executive Agency Employees: A Side-by-Side Comparison of Legislation Pending in the 111th Congress

Telework for Executive Agency Employees: A Side-by-Side Comparison of Legislation Pending in the 111th Congress

Date: May 4, 2010
Creator: Schwemle, Barbara L.
Description: The 111th Congress is considering legislation (S. 707 and H.R. 1722) to foster the development of telework in executive agencies of the federal government. Legislation to augment telework in executive agencies of the federal government is currently pending in the 111th Congress. S. 707, the Telework Enhancement Act of 2009, and H.R. 1722, the Telework Improvements Act of 2010, were introduced on March 25, 2009, by Senator Daniel Akaka and Representative John Sarbanes, respectively. This report presents a side-by-side comparison of the provisions of S. 707, as reported, and H.R. 1722, as ordered to be reported.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
State Efforts to Deter Unauthorized Aliens: Legal Analysis of Arizona's S.B. 1070

State Efforts to Deter Unauthorized Aliens: Legal Analysis of Arizona's S.B. 1070

Date: May 3, 2010
Creator: Garcia, Michael J.; Eig, Larry M. & Kim, Yule
Description: This report discusses the major provisions of S.B.1070, as modified by H.B. 2162, and the legal and constitutional considerations possibly implicated by their implementation. The report focuses primarily on those provisions that require state enforcement of federal immigration law and impose criminal penalties for immigration-related conduct, and discusses preemption issues that might be raised by these measures.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legislative Approaches to Defining "Waters of the United States"

Legislative Approaches to Defining "Waters of the United States"

Date: April 30, 2010
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report seeks to clarify the scope of the Clean Water Act (CWA) in the wake of Supreme Court decisions in 2001 and 2006 that interpreted the law's jurisdiction more narrowly than prior case law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Permissible Securities Activities of Commercial Banks Under the Glass-Steagall Act (GSA) and the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA)

Permissible Securities Activities of Commercial Banks Under the Glass-Steagall Act (GSA) and the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA)

Date: April 12, 2010
Creator: Carpenter, David H. & Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: This report explains the extent to which commercial banks, their subsidiaries, and affiliates were able to engage in securities activities, including securities underwriting, dealing, and brokerage, under the authorities of the Glass-Steagall Act (GSA) and other pre-GLBA (Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act) banking laws, most notably the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (BHCA; 70 Stat. 133). It also discusses how the volume and scope of these securities activities expanded over time, and how the GLBA changed the GSA construct by facilitating affiliations among commercial banks and securities firms..
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Immigration Policy on Permanent Admissions

U.S. Immigration Policy on Permanent Admissions

Date: April 1, 2010
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report discusses the four major principles underlie current U.S. policy on permanent immigration: the reunification of families, the admission of immigrants with needed skills, the protection of refugees, and the diversity of admissions by country of origin.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nonimmigrant Overstays: Brief Synthesis of the Issue

Nonimmigrant Overstays: Brief Synthesis of the Issue

Date: January 15, 2010
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report discusses a fundamental problem of immigration control in which foreign nationals enter legally on a temporary basis and continue to stay after their visas expire.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pipeline Safety and Security: Federal Programs

Pipeline Safety and Security: Federal Programs

Date: February 18, 2010
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W.
Description: This report discusses congressional interest in securing the nation's pipelines. Nearly half a million miles of oil and natural gas transmission pipeline crisscross the United States. While an efficient and fundamentally safe means of transport, many pipelines carry hazardous materials with the potential to cause public injury and environmental damage.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
False Patent Marking: Litigation and Legislation

False Patent Marking: Litigation and Legislation

Date: September 20, 2010
Creator: Yeh, Brian T.
Description: This report will describe and analyze the Federal Circuit's 2009 decision that requires a per-article penalty for false marking, as well as two subsequent Federal Circuit decisions in 2010 that answer several questions that have arisen during the recent false patent marking litigation. It also identifies and discusses legislation in the 111th Congress that would amend § 292 in order to retroactively end qui tam false marking suits and with the intent of reducing the number of false marking suits filed in the future.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
False Patent Marking: Litigation and Legislation

False Patent Marking: Litigation and Legislation

Date: October 20, 2010
Creator: Yeh, Brian T.
Description: This report will describe and analyze the Federal Circuit's 2009 decision that requires a per-article penalty for false marking, as well as two subsequent Federal Circuit decisions in 2010 that answer several questions that have arisen during the recent false patent marking litigation. It also identifies and discusses legislation in the 111th Congress that would amend § 292 in order to retroactively end qui tam false marking suits and with the intent of reducing the number of false marking suits filed in the future.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cybercrime: An Overview of the Federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Statute and Related Federal Criminal Laws

Cybercrime: An Overview of the Federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Statute and Related Federal Criminal Laws

Date: December 27, 2010
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: The federal computer fraud and abuse statute, 18 U.S.C. 1030, outlaws conduct that victimizes computer systems. It is a cyber security law. It protects federal computers, bank computers, and computers connected to the Internet. It shields them from trespassing, threats, damage, espionage, and from being corruptly used as instruments of fraud. It is not a comprehensive provision, but instead it fills cracks and gaps in the protection afforded by other federal criminal laws. This is a brief sketch of Section 1030 and some of its federal statutory companions, including the amendments found in the Identity Theft Enforcement and Restitution Act.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Telework for Executive Agency Employees: A Side-by-Side Comparison of Legislation Pending in the 111th Congress

Telework for Executive Agency Employees: A Side-by-Side Comparison of Legislation Pending in the 111th Congress

Date: October 5, 2010
Creator: Schwemle, Barbara L.
Description: This report discusses legislation (S. 707 and H.R. 1722) designed to foster the development of telework in executive agencies of the federal government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Surface Transportation Funding and Finance

Surface Transportation Funding and Finance

Date: November 10, 2010
Creator: Fischer, John W.; Kirk, Robert S. & Mallett, William J.
Description: This report discusses changes in funding to the national surface transportation infrastructure, especially in light of the recession that began in 2007, which led to decreases in driving and fuel use. This report focuses on possible revenue sources for surface transportation infrastructure. It begins with a brief discussion of the problems associated with the trust fund financing system and then explores possible immediate and longer-term solutions to the financing problem.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
State Efforts to Deter Unauthorized Aliens: Legal Analysis of Arizona's S.B. 1070

State Efforts to Deter Unauthorized Aliens: Legal Analysis of Arizona's S.B. 1070

Date: September 14, 2010
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.; Garcia, Michael John & Eig, Larry M.
Description: On April 23, 2010, Arizona enacted S.B. 1070, which is designed to discourage and deter the entry or presence of aliens who lack lawful status under federal immigration law. This report discusses this piece of legislation and some of the notable preemption issues raised by its provisions. Where relevant, it examines the district court's ruling that the federal government is likely to succeed on the merits of its arguments that certain sections of S.B. 1070 are preempted by federal law. It also discusses other preemption issues potentially raised by S.B. 1070 or similar legislation, including some issues that were not expressly addressed by the district court in its preliminary ruling.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
State Efforts to Deter Unauthorized Aliens: Legal Analysis of Arizona's S.B. 1070

State Efforts to Deter Unauthorized Aliens: Legal Analysis of Arizona's S.B. 1070

Date: September 14, 2010
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.; Garcia, Michael John & Eig, Larry M.
Description: This report discusses S.B. 1070 and some of the notable preemption issues raised by some of its provisions. Where relevant, it examines the district court's ruling that the federal government is likely to succeed on the merits of its arguments that certain sections of S.B. 1070 are preempted by federal law. It also discusses other preemption issues potentially raised by S.B. 1070 or similar legislation, including some issues that were not expressly addressed by the district court in its preliminary ruling.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
"Robo-Signing" and Other Alleged Documentation Problems in Judicial and Nonjudicial Foreclosure Processes

"Robo-Signing" and Other Alleged Documentation Problems in Judicial and Nonjudicial Foreclosure Processes

Date: November 15, 2010
Creator: Carpenter, David H.
Description: Recent depositions involving major servicers, including GMAC Mortgage, J.P. Morgan Chase, and Wells Fargo, have raised concerns about "robo-signing" -- the practice of having a small number of individuals sign a large number of affidavits and other legal documents submitted to courts and other public authorities by mortgage companies to execute foreclosure. This report explores concerns related to these issues by explaining the mortgage market process, procedural problems that have surfaced during foreclosure proceedings, and other relevant information.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Equity Legislation

Pay Equity Legislation

Date: September 20, 2010
Creator: Feder, Jody & Levine, Linda
Description: This report begins by showing the trend in the male-female wage gap and by examining the explanations that have been offered for its enduring presence. It next discusses the major laws directed at eliminating sex-based wage discrimination as well as relevant federal court cases. The report closes with a description of pay equity legislation that has been considered by Congress in recent years, including bills introduced in the 111th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Piracy: A Legal Definition

Piracy: A Legal Definition

Date: October 19, 2010
Creator: Mason, R. Chuck
Description: Pirate attacks in the waters off the Horn of Africa, including those on U.S.-flagged vessels, have brought continued U.S. and international attention to the long-standing problem of piracy in the region. A recent development in one of the piracy trials in Norfolk, VA, has highlighted a potential limitation in the definition of piracy under the United States Code. This report first examines the historical development of the offense of piracy, as defined by Congress and codified in the United States Code. The focus then turns to how contemporary international agreements define piracy. Finally, the report highlights a recent federal district court ruling that the offense of piracy under 18 U.S.C. § 1651 requires a robbery at sea.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Food Safety on the Farm: Federal Programs and Selected Proposals

Food Safety on the Farm: Federal Programs and Selected Proposals

Date: April 21, 2010
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Description: This report discusses comprehensive food safety bills that are progressing in the 111th Congress and could affect farmers and ranchers. Interest in on-farm practices was renewed after more than 1,300 persons in 43 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada were found to be infected with the same unusual strain of bacteria (Salmonella Saintpaul) in April-July 2008.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Current Legal Status of the FCC’s Media Ownership Rules

Current Legal Status of the FCC’s Media Ownership Rules

Date: August 23, 2010
Creator: Ruane, Kathleen A.
Description: This report discusses the Federal Communications Commission’s (FCC) media ownership regulations, which place limits on the number of broadcast radio and television outlets one owner can possess in a given market and place cross-ownership restrictions on these outlets and on the cross-ownership of broadcast properties and newspapers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department