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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Fish and Wildlife Service: Compensation to Local Governments

Fish and Wildlife Service: Compensation to Local Governments

Date: March 6, 1990
Creator: M. Lynne Corn
Description: The Refuge Revenue Sharing Fund (RRSF) was enacted in response to the concern of local governments regarding losses to their tax base due to the presence of federally owned land under the jurisdiction of the Fish and Wildlife Service. This report outlines recent history of RRSF payment levels. It examines the RRSF and describes how the fund differs in its treatment of reserved and acquired lands under the jurisdiction of FWS. The report also examines the Payment in Lieu of Taxes (PILT) program in detail.
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The Fair Labor Standards Act: Changes Made by the 101st Congress and Their Implications

The Fair Labor Standards Act: Changes Made by the 101st Congress and Their Implications

Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Whittaker, William G.
Description: Initially, in the 101st Congress, a measure to increase federal minimum wage (and to make numerous other changes in the FLSA) was passed by both the House and the Senate but, in June 1989, it was vetoed by President Bush. An effort by the House to override the President's veto was unsuccessful. Later, new legislation was introduced and approved both by the House and the Senate. On November 17, 1989, President Bush signed the bill (P.L. 101-107).
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Congress and Trade Policy Toward Japan

Congress and Trade Policy Toward Japan

Date: April 15, 1992
Creator: Nanto, Dick K
Description: None
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H.R. 5100: Major Trade Legislation of the 102d Congress

H.R. 5100: Major Trade Legislation of the 102d Congress

Date: September 8, 1992
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M; Bass, Gwenell L; Cooper, William H & Sek, Lenore
Description: None
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The Listing of a Species: Legal Definition and Biological Realities

The Listing of a Species: Legal Definition and Biological Realities

Date: December 15, 1992
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: None
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The Endangered Species Act and Private Property

The Endangered Species Act and Private Property

Date: March 7, 1993
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: If the 103rd Congress embarks upon an effort to reauthorize the Endangered Species Act (ESA), it will run into an old acquaintance: the property rights issue. As now written, the ESA has at least the potential to curtail property rights (whatever its actual impact as implemented may be). This report explores the legal repercussions of those impacts, especially whether they constitute takings of property under the fifth amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
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President Bush's Judicial Nominations During the 101st and 102nd Congresses

President Bush's Judicial Nominations During the 101st and 102nd Congresses

Date: March 29, 1993
Creator: Rutkus, Denis Steven
Description: There are ten categories of courts (including the local courts of the District of Columbia) to which the President nominates judges. The report provides background and statistics concerning President Bush's judicial nominations in each court category as well as actions taken on those nominations by the United States Senate. Each of the report's ten sections discusses the composition and jurisdiction of the court in question and notes the committee to which nominations to this court were referred when received by the Senate. Also, statistics on judicial nominations received by the Senate during the four years of the Bush Presidency are presented.
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Foreign Assistance and Commercial Interests: The Aid for Trade Debate

Foreign Assistance and Commercial Interests: The Aid for Trade Debate

Date: May 24, 1993
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt & Nowels, Larry
Description: None
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Air Quality: Impacts of Trip Reduction Programs on States and Affected Employers

Air Quality: Impacts of Trip Reduction Programs on States and Affected Employers

Date: August 18, 1993
Creator: Flechtner, Maura K & Mayer, Susan L
Description: This report discusses employer trip reduction (ETR) programs, which would require large employers to implement certain transportation control measures as part of a national effort to combat air pollution, largely as a direct result of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.
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Mixing Banking and Commerce Using Federal Deposit Insurance: Industrial Banks and Nonbank Banks

Mixing Banking and Commerce Using Federal Deposit Insurance: Industrial Banks and Nonbank Banks

Date: August 26, 1993
Creator: Jackson, William D
Description: None
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Toxic Pollutants and the Clean Water Act: Current Issues

Toxic Pollutants and the Clean Water Act: Current Issues

Date: September 21, 1993
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
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China: Current U.S. Sanctions

China: Current U.S. Sanctions

Date: February 8, 1994
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Market-Based Environmental Management: Issues in Implementation

Market-Based Environmental Management: Issues in Implementation

Date: March 7, 1994
Creator: Moore, John L.; Blodgett, John E.; Copeland, Claudia; Gushee, David E.; Mayer, Susan L.; McCarthy, James E. et al.
Description: Increasingly, efforts to protect integral features of the natural environment that are essential to human well being face a double challenge. First, the magnitude of some conventional and emerging threats to environmental quality is growing, despite solid progress in controlling some causes. This is particularly the concern on a global scale in terms of atmospheric changes and loss of biological diversity. Second, easily-implemented uniform control methods using feasible technologies or other direct regulatory approaches are already in place for many pollution and resource management problems in the United States. Additional progress with so-called command and control policies can be expensive and disruptive, and thus counter productive to overall economic well being. This type of dilemma is common where environmental deterioration results from diffuse and complex causes inherent in technically-advanced high-consumption industrial societies such as the U.S. Solutions to these types of environmental problems are complicated by the diffuse benefits which obscures the net gains of additional controls that have concentrated and highly visible costs. Given this double bind, many policy analysts and academics have for years advocated more cost-effective and flexible approaches relying on market forces to further some environmental management objectives. Although market-based theory and practical environmental policy are ...
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Mining Law Reform: The Impact of a Royalty

Mining Law Reform: The Impact of a Royalty

Date: May 12, 1994
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Description: None
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Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1994 Summary of S. 2019, as Passed

Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1994 Summary of S. 2019, as Passed

Date: July 28, 1994
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
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Current U.S. Sanctions Against China

Current U.S. Sanctions Against China

Date: August 15, 1994
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: In the months following China's 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown, both the President and the Congress took a number of initiatives protesting Beijing's actions. These initiatives centered around U.S. concerns related to trade, human rights, and non-proliferation. In intervening years, the United States has periodically imposed, lifted, or waived other sanctions and concluded several trade-related agreements with China relating to these concerns. Those measures that remain in place in 1994 are detailed in the accompanying tables.
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The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species: Its Past and Future

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species: Its Past and Future

Date: August 24, 1994
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: This report discusses the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). It is divided into six sections: Introduction, Background, CITES and the Endangered Species Act, Implementation, Upcoming Events, and Appendices.
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Marine Mammal Protection Act Amendments of 1994

Marine Mammal Protection Act Amendments of 1994

Date: September 28, 1994
Creator: Buck, Eugene H
Description: This report summarizes provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act Amendments of 1994 and outlines this Act's implementation schedule for use by Members of Congress and their staff.
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Legislative Prayer and School Prayer: The Constitutional Difference

Legislative Prayer and School Prayer: The Constitutional Difference

Date: October 26, 1994
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
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Legislative Prayer and School Prayer: The Constitutional Difference

Legislative Prayer and School Prayer: The Constitutional Difference

Date: October 26, 1994
Creator: Ackerman, David A.
Description: The Supreme Court's decisions holding government-sponsored prayer in the public schools to violate the First Amendment's establishment clause but prayer in legislative assemblies to be constitutional are sometimes lifted up as contradictory. This report summarizes the relevant decisions and identifies the distinctions the Court has drawn between the two situations.
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Implementing Acid Rain Legislation

Implementing Acid Rain Legislation

Date: November 15, 1994
Creator: Parker, Larry
Description: This report discusses the broad-ranging provisions in Title IV of The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549), which raise myriad implementation issues, particularly with respect to the system of tradable "allowances."
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Clean Water Issues in the 104th Congress

Clean Water Issues in the 104th Congress

Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: For the 104th Congress, reauthorization of the Clean Water Act would seem likely to be a priority, since the Act was last amended in 1987 and authorizations expired on September 30, 1990. But legislative prospects in the 104th Congress are uncertain. Clean water also was a priority for the 103rd Congress, but, in 1994, Congress ran out of time and did not act on comprehensive amendments. Many of the issues proved to be too complex and controversial to be resolved easily, while Congress also was considering a large agenda of environmental and other bills. Controversies arose in connection with issues specific to the Clean Water Act and a trio of regulatory relief issues that became barriers to a number of bills in the 103rd Congress.
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Conservation Reserve Program: Policy Issues for the 1995 Farm Bill

Conservation Reserve Program: Policy Issues for the 1995 Farm Bill

Date: December 19, 1994
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), enacted in 1985, enables producers to bid to retire highly erodible or environmentally sensitive crop land for 10 years (or longer under certain circumstances). Successful bidders receive annual rental payments, and cost-sharing and technical assistance to install approved plantings. The program was to enroll between 40 and 45 million acres before 1996. Program goals are to reduce erosion and excess production, and more recently, to provide other environmental benefits. To date, about 36.5 million acres have been enrolled.
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Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: Recent Developments

Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: Recent Developments

Date: December 19, 1994
Creator: Blodgett, John E
Description: If general regulatory reform bills were enacted, debates on statute-specific reauthorizations could shift from regulatory reforms to the substantive regulatory requirements of each Act. In this case, regulatory reform could consist of proposals to modify statutory requirements to reduce costs to the private sector and State and local governments, to increase flexibility, and to reduce or compensate regulatory impacts on the value of private property. At issue would be a series of potential tradeoffs, for example among efficiency of environmental regulations, national consistency versus local flexibility, protection of private property rights, and degrees of health and environmental protection.
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