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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Year: 1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Monopoly and Monopolization - Fundamental But Separate Concepts in U.S. Antitrust Law

Monopoly and Monopolization - Fundamental But Separate Concepts in U.S. Antitrust Law

Date: June 28, 1999
Creator: Rubin, Janice E
Description: This report illustrates the difference between the concepts of “monopoly” and “monopolization” by touching on the monopoly/monopolization thinking in the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice (DoJ) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), as illustrated in (1) statements on merger enforcement made by recent antitrust enforcement officials (generally indicative of the agencies’ concerns about competitive conditions and the effect of various market transactions), (2) the 1992 Horizontal Merger Guidelines 2 and (3) some observations on the Government actions against the Microsoft and Intel Corporations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Mining Law Millsite Debate

The Mining Law Millsite Debate

Date: September 14, 1999
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Commerce Clause as a Limit on Congressional Power to Protect the Environment

The Commerce Clause as a Limit on Congressional Power to Protect the Environment

Date: March 12, 1999
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: Several times during the 1990s the Supreme Court struck down federal enactments as exceeding Congress' power under the Commerce Clause or Tenth Amendment. This report briefly reviews three of these decisions -- United States v. Lopez, New York v. United States, and Printz v. United States. Its focus, however, is how these cases have played out in subsequent lower-court challenges to federal environmental laws. The report shows that Supreme Court rulings in favor of these states notwithstanding, such laws have generally, though not always, been found within Commerce Clause and Tenth Amendment limits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Date: June 14, 1999
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E
Description: Current law governing financial activity of campaigns for federal office is based on two principal statutes: the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971, as amended in 1974, 1976, and 1979, and the Revenue Act of 1971. These laws were enacted to remedy widely perceived shortcomings of existing law, the Corrupt Practices Act of 1925, and in response to reports of campaign finance abuses over the years, culminating in the 1972-1974 Watergate scandal. This report provides a summary of major provisions of federal law and a chronology of key legislative and judicial actions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Passenger Service Act, Domestic Ocean Passenger Services, and the 106th Congress

The Passenger Service Act, Domestic Ocean Passenger Services, and the 106th Congress

Date: January 15, 1999
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Clean Water Action Plan: Background and Early Implementation

The Clean Water Action Plan: Background and Early Implementation

Date: May 3, 1999
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: October 1997, Vice President Gore directed federal agencies to develop a Clean Water Initiative to improve and strengthen water pollution control efforts. The multi-agency plan was released on Feb. 19, 1998, and identifies more than 100 key actions. Most are existing activities, now labeled as part of the Initiative. The President's FY1999 budget requested $2.2 billion for five departments and agencies ($568 million more than in FY1998) to fund implementation. By October 1998, Congress passed bills to fund the plan, but appropriations provided $1.8 billion, or less than 15%, of the requested increases. In the meantime, however, federal agencies are beginning or accelerating activities to carry out the actions under the Plan.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Act Issues in the 105th Congress

Clean Air Act Issues in the 105th Congress

Date: March 3, 1999
Creator: McCarthy, James E
Description: This Issue Brief discusses clean air issues that arose in the 105th Congress. CRS Issue Brief IB10004 addresses the 106th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Risk and Cost-Benefit Analysis: A Review of Proposed Legislative Mandates, 1993-1998

Environmental Risk and Cost-Benefit Analysis: A Review of Proposed Legislative Mandates, 1993-1998

Date: January 22, 1999
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: Between 1993 and 1998 Congress considered many proposals that aimed to increase or improve the use of risk analysis by federal agencies, especially in developing environmental rules. This report describes differences and similarities among selected provisions of key proposals: Senate-passed Johnston amendments to S. 171 and S. 2019 in the 103rd Congress; S. 343, as reported by the Committee on the Judiciary, in the 104th Congress; House-passed H.R. 9 in the 104th Congress; S. 981, as reported by the Committee on Governmental Affairs, in the 105th Congress, and S. 1728, as introduced, in the 105th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Disaster Mitigation Bills in the 106th Congress: H.R. 707, S. 1691 Compared

Disaster Mitigation Bills in the 106th Congress: H.R. 707, S. 1691 Compared

Date: October 25, 1999
Creator: Bea, Keith
Description: The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act authorizes the President to declare that an emergency or major disaster exists that overwhelms state and local resources. Legislation before the 106th Congress (H.R. 707 and S. 1691) would, among other matters, amend the Act to: (1) fund hazard mitigation projects designed to reduce future disaster losses; (2) add conditions to assistance; and (3) consolidate provisions governing the distribution of aid to disaster victims. This report compares provisions of the two bills, and will be updated as legislative action occurs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amtrak: Background and Selected Public Policy Issues

Amtrak: Background and Selected Public Policy Issues

Date: March 2, 1999
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J
Description: This report discusses the financial troubles of Amtrak, its request for federal financial operating assistance, the Amtrack Reform and Accountability Act of 1997, Amtrak's Strategic Business Plan for FY1999-2002, Amtrak's operating losses, and other rail passenger services that might emerge in the absence of Amtrak, should the company fail.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Animal Agriculture: Issues for the 106th Congress

Animal Agriculture: Issues for the 106th Congress

Date: September 2, 1999
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report discusses a variety of animal agriculture issues that generated debate during the 106th Congress, including low livestock prices, especially for hogs. Economic difficulties have revived questions such as the impacts of consolidation in the livestock industry, and the price effects of animal imports from Canada and Mexico. This report also discusses a number of legislative proposals to assist livestock producers and enforce sanitary and phytosanitary standards, as well as continuing trade disputes and negotiations with China, the European Union, New Zealand, and Australia.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Indian Law: Sources of General Information

Federal Indian Law: Sources of General Information

Date: October 27, 1999
Creator: Ely, Dana
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mandates Information Act: Action in the 106th Congress

Mandates Information Act: Action in the 106th Congress

Date: February 8, 1999
Creator: Beth, Richard S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (PACA)

The Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (PACA)

Date: October 26, 1999
Creator: Branaman, Brenda
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Proposed Budget Process Reforms in the Senate: A Brief Analysis of Senate Resolutions 4, 5, 6, and 8

Proposed Budget Process Reforms in the Senate: A Brief Analysis of Senate Resolutions 4, 5, 6, and 8

Date: February 1, 1999
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The International Criminal Court Treaty: Description, Policy Issues, and Congressional Concerns

The International Criminal Court Treaty: Description, Policy Issues, and Congressional Concerns

Date: January 6, 1999
Creator: Grigorian, Ellen
Description: This report discusses the events leading to the creation of a permanent international criminal tribunal and U.S. perspectives on the Court including: problematic provisions in the ICC Treaty, congressional considerations, and potential implications for U.S. foreign policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental, Health, and Safety Tradeoffs: A Discussion of Policymaking Opportunities and Constraints

Environmental, Health, and Safety Tradeoffs: A Discussion of Policymaking Opportunities and Constraints

Date: February 1, 1999
Creator: Blodgett, John E
Description: This report discusses the implications of cost-benefit analysis and risk assessment in the context of congressional and administrative decision-making structures. It identifies constraints on flexible decision-making and some implications of trying to overcome them.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Amtrak Reform and Accountability Act of 1997 and Related Developments

The Amtrak Reform and Accountability Act of 1997 and Related Developments

Date: January 28, 1999
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J
Description: The Amtrak Reform and Accountability Act of 1997, enacted December 2, 1997, authorized appropriations to Amtrak through FY2002. This CRS report summarizes the provisions of the Act and discusses related developments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act

Date: March 3, 1999
Creator: Seitzinger, Michael V.
Description: This report gives an overview of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, which was intended to prohibit bribery of foreign officials by American corporations. It includes information about the original legislation, amendments in 1988, and amendments in 1998 that brought the legislation into conformance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's agreement on bribery.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law

Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law

Date: November 1, 1999
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E & Shuey, Robert
Description: This report provides background on foreign policy sanctions. It addresses the following questions: Why do we apply sanctions? What objectives does the U.S. government seek to achieve when it imposes sanctions? Who imposes sanctions? What tools are available? How likely is it that sanctions will achieve the stated goal? What secondary consequences might sanctions have? What change is required for the sanctions to be lifted? Would multilateral sanctions be more desirable and achievable? The report also provides an uncomplicated map of where sanctions policies and options currently may be found in U.S. law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nationwide Permits for Wetlands Projects: Permit 26 and Other Issues and Controversies

Nationwide Permits for Wetlands Projects: Permit 26 and Other Issues and Controversies

Date: January 21, 1999
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Preemption Language in Federal Environmental Statutes

Preemption Language in Federal Environmental Statutes

Date: July 29, 1999
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Government Performance and Results Act: Implementation and Issues of Possible Concern, 106th Congress

Government Performance and Results Act: Implementation and Issues of Possible Concern, 106th Congress

Date: March 30, 1999
Creator: Knezo, Genevieve J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Act Permitting: Status of Implementation

Clean Air Act Permitting: Status of Implementation

Date: May 14, 1999
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: The 1990 Clean Air Act amendments established an operating permit system that is affecting many new and existing sources of air emissions, as well as state and local air pollution control agencies. After delays and early missteps, the operating permit program is moving ahead. All state and local programs have received interim or full approval, and permits are being issued, although at a slower rate than anticipated. However, a number of issues exist. These include the effect of key federal regulations, not yet promulgated, on permit programs and regulated sources; adequacy of state resources; gaining full approval for those permit programs that now have interim approval; and oversight.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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