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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Child Welfare Issues in the 108th Congress
The purpose of this report is to present a number of generally less broad legislative proposals related to child welfare financing have been introduced in the 108th Congress. Additional child welfare-related proposals designed to improve services, promote timely placement of children across state lines, and for other purposes, are described in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3906/
Child Welfare Issues in the 108th Congress
The purpose of this report is to present a number of generally less broad legislative proposals related to child welfare financing have been introduced in the 108th Congress. Additional child welfare-related proposals designed to improve services, promote timely placement of children across state lines, and for other purposes, are described in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5750/
Child Welfare Issues in the 108th Congress
The purpose of this report is to present a number of generally less broad legislative proposals related to child welfare financing have been introduced in the 108th Congress. Additional child welfare-related proposals designed to improve services, promote timely placement of children across state lines, and for other purposes, are described in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3903/
Federal Advertising Law: An Overview
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Naming Post Offices Through Legislation
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What Is a Farm Bill?
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Immigration Statistics on the Web
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Deregulation of Transportation
Transportation has been substantially deregulated over the last 5 years and there is talk of enacting legislation during the 98th Congress to further deregulate transportation or to restore some of the regulation that recent legislation has removed. This mini brief gives an overview of the deregulation already enacted into law, and some of the ideas being considered for further legislation. The brief also refers to some sources for further reading. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9035/
Lobbying Reform: Background and Legislative Proposals, 109th Congress
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Federal Railroad Safety Program and Reauthorization Issues
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The Passenger Service Act, Domestic Ocean Passenger Services, and the 106th Congress
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ISTEA Reauthorization: Highway Related Legislative Proposals in the 105th Congress
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Electric Utility Provisions in House-Passed H.R. 6, 109th Congress
This report describes Title XII of the House-passed H.R. 6 in the 109th Congress and other sections that deal with electric power issues. In part, Title XII would create an electric reliability organization (ERO) that would enforce mandatory reliability standards for the bulk-power system. All ERO standards would be approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). Under this title, the ERO could impose penalties on a user, owner, or operator of the bulk-power system that violates any FERC-approved reliability standard. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7789/
Patient Protection During the 107th Congress: Side-by-Side Comparison of House and Senate Bills
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The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act: Reauthorization Issues for the 107th Congress
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Patent Reform: Overview and Comparison of S. 507 and H.R. 400
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Immigration: Adjustment to Permanent Resident Status Under Section 245(i)
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The Nicaraguan Adjustment and Central American Relief Act: Hardship Relief and Long-Term Illegal Aliens
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Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods
H.R. 2744, USDA’s FY2006 appropriation, again postpones rules requiring many retailers to provide country-of-origin labeling (COOL) for fresh produce, red meats, and peanuts — until September 30, 2008. Mandatory COOL for seafood was finalized on September 30, 2004. Some in Congress still strongly support mandatory COOL, and say they voted against final passage of H.R. 2744 because of the delay. Others counter that COOL should be voluntary. Several pending bills would alter the program including H.R. 2068, H.R. 2744, S. 135, S. 1300, S. 1331, and S. 1333. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8534/
The Export Administration Act: Evolution, Provisions, and Debate
This paper discusses the Export Administration Act in terms of its evolution in the 20th century, its major features including the types of controls authorized by the act, the Commerce Control List and export licensing procedures, and issues concerning the maintenance of export controls under IEEPA. It then highlights several controlled commodities that have been featured prominently in export control discussions. Finally, it discusses competing business and national security perspectives concerning several of more contentious themes in the export control debate: the controllability of technology, the effectiveness of multilateral control regimes, the organization of the export control system, and the impact of export controls on the U.S. economy and business. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9697/
The Debt Limit: The Ongoing Need for Increases
The surpluses over the four fiscal years 1998-2001 reduced debt held by the public by $448 billion. More than offsetting this debt reduction, the surpluses credited to debt-holding government accounts (which generally must invest the surpluses in federal debt), increased their holdings by $853 billion over the same period. The combination ($853 billion minus $448 billion) raised total federal debt by $405 billion. During 2002, debt subject to limit increased enough to reach the then current statutory debt limit, $5.95 trillion, in early April and again in May 2002. Congress passed and the President signed legislation (P.L. 108-24) increasing the limit to $6.4 trillion in June 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8966/
Generalized System of Preferences
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Energy Efficiency: Budget, Oil Conservation, and Electricity Conservation Issues
In the 108th Congress, debate over energy efficiency programs has focused on budget, oil, natural gas, and electricity issues, and provisions in the omnibus energy policy bill, S. 2095, H.R. 6, and S. 14/S. 1149. The Bush Administration’s FY2005 budget request for the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Energy Efficiency Program sought $875.9 million, including $543.9 for R&D and $332.0 million for grants. In the first session, the omnibus energy bill (H.R. 6) had several significant tax and regulatory measures for energy efficiency. It did not pass the Senate due to concerns about cost and an MTBE “safe harbor” provision. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8653/
The Export Administration Act: Evolution, Provisions, and Debate
The 109th Congress may consider legislation to renew and to reauthorize the Export Administration Act (EAA). Said legislation would revise the EAA, especially in the areas of penalties, enforcement, and U.S. policy towards multilateral export control regimes. Through the EAA, Congress delegates to the executive branch its express constitutional authority to regulate foreign commerce by controlling exports. EAA confers upon the President the power to control exports for national security, foreign policy or short supply purposes. Conflicting views on the liberalization of export administration controls, especially concerning particular exports such as high performance computers, encryption technology, stealth materials, satellites, machine tools, "hot-section" aerospace technology, and the issue of "deemed exports." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10445/
Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods
The 2002 farm bill required retailers to provide country-of-origin labeling for fresh produce, red meats, peanuts, and seafood by September 30, 2004. Congress twice postponed implementation for all but seafood; country-of-origin labeling (COOL) now must be implemented by September 30, 2008. Some lawmakers have proposed new COOL requirements for other foods and food ingredients, as part of a proposed overhaul of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26116/
Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods
The 2002 farm bill required retailers to provide country-of-origin labeling (COOL) for fresh produce, red meats, peanuts, and seafood by September 30, 2004. Congress twice postponed implementation for all bu seafood; COOL now must be implemented by September 30, 2008. This report describes the current status of the COOL issue, as well as the ongoing discussion of additional COOL requirements for other foods and food ingredients as part of the proposed Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act overhaul. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26117/
Breastfeeding: Federal Legislation
There has been significant growth in the practice of breastfeeding in recent years. As a result, Congress and numerous state legislatures have considered various proposals concerning different aspects of breastfeeding. Through appropriations legislation, Congress has repeatedly affirmed a mother’s right to breastfeed on federal property or in a federal building, if the mother and child are authorized to be in that location. This practice was most recently affirmed in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7786/
Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods
Federal law requires most imports, including many food items, to bear labels informing the “ultimate purchaser” of their country of origin. Meats, produce, and several other raw agricultural products generally have been exempt. The omnibus farm law (P.L. 107-171) signed on May 13, 2002, contains a requirement that many retailers provide, starting on September 30, 2004, country-of-origin labeling (COOL) on fresh fruits and vegetables, red meats, seafood, and peanuts. The program is voluntary until then. USDA on October 8, 2002, issued guidelines for the voluntary labeling program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10018/
Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods
The 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171) as modified by the FY2004 USDA appropriation (P.L. 108-199) mandates retail country-of-origin labeling (COOL) for fresh produce, red meats, and peanuts starting September 30, 2006, and for seafood starting September 30, 2004. Some in Congress still strongly support mandatory COOL, especially after discoveries since 2003 of “mad cow” disease in four Canadian-born cattle. Others counter that COOL is a marketing, not an animal or human health, concern and should be voluntary. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10089/
The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act: Reauthorization Issues
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The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act: Reauthorization Issues
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Welfare Reform: An Issue Overview
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Strategic Petroleum Reserve
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Strategic Petroleum Reserve
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Strategic Petroleum Reserve
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Energy Efficiency: Budget, Oil Conservation, and Electricity Conservation Issues
In the 108th Congress, debate over energy efficiency programs has focused on budget, oil, natural gas, and electricity issues, and provisions in the omnibus energy policy bill, S. 2095, H.R. 6, and S. 14/S. 1149. The Bush Administration’s FY2005 budget request for the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Energy Efficiency Program sought $875.9 million, including $543.9 for R&D and $332.0 million for grants. In the first session, the omnibus energy bill (H.R. 6) had several significant tax and regulatory measures for energy efficiency. It did not pass the Senate due to concerns about cost and an MTBE “safe harbor” provision. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10074/
Energy Efficiency: Budget, Oil Conservation, and Electricity Conservation Issues
Energy security, a major driver of federal energy efficiency programs in the past, came back into play as oil and gas prices rose late in the year 2000. The terrorist attack in 2001 and the Iraq war have led to heightened concern for energy security and raised further concerns about the vulnerability of energy infrastructure and the need for alternative fuels. Further, the 2001 power shortages in California, the 2003 northeast-midwest power blackout, and continuing high natural gas prices have brought a renewed emphasis on energy efficiency and energy conservation to dampen electricity, oil, and natural gas demand. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10164/
Energy Efficiency: Budget, Oil Conservation, and Electricity Conservation Issues
In the 108th Congress, debate over energy efficiency programs has focused on budget, oil, natural gas, and electricity issues, and provisions in the omnibus energy policy bill, S. 2095, H.R. 6, and S. 14/S. 1149. The Bush Administration’s FY2005 budget request for the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Energy Efficiency Program sought $875.9 million, including $543.9 for R&D and $332.0 million for grants. In the first session, the omnibus energy bill (H.R. 6) had several significant tax and regulatory measures for energy efficiency. It did not pass the Senate due to concerns about cost and an MTBE “safe harbor” provision. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10073/
Welfare Reauthorization: A Side-By-Side Comparison of Current Law, Senate Committee-Approved and House Budget Reconciliation Bill Provisions
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Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Legislation (Including Budgetary Implications)
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Methamphetamine: Legislation and Issues in the 109th Congress
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Presidential Succession: An Overview with Analysis of Legislation Proposed in the 109th Congress
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The Schiavo Case: Legal Issues
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Terrorism: World Trade Center and the Pentagon – Applicable Federal Criminal Law
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Federal Credit Reform: Implementation of the Changed Budgetary Treatment of Direct Loans and Loan Guarantees
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Strategic Petroleum Reserve
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Strategic Petroleum Reserve
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Strategic Petroleum Reserve
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Strategic Petroleum Reserve
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Energy Policy: Comprehensive Energy Legislation (H.R. 6) in the 109th Congress
The House passed H.R. 6, the Energy Policy Act of 2005, on April 21, 2005 (249-183). The legislation includes a “safe harbor” provision to protect methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) refiners from product liability suits, which was retained after a close vote on an amendment to drop the language (213-219). In the 108th Congress, there was opposition to this provision in the Senate. It is unclear how its inclusion may affect Senate passage of an energy bill in the 109th Congress. House Republicans have indicated that a compromise will be sought to satisfy the other body. Language in the House-passed bill would also authorize opening of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) to exploration and development. An amendment to delete the ANWR provisions from H.R. 6 was defeated (200-231). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7123/