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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Immigration of Temporary Lower-Skilled Workers: Current Policy and Related Issues

Immigration of Temporary Lower-Skilled Workers: Current Policy and Related Issues

Date: March 20, 2012
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Description: U.S. employers in various industries argue that they need to hire foreign workers to perform lower-skilled jobs, while others maintain that many of these positions could be filled by U.S. workers. While the discussion of current guest worker programs in this report focuses on the H-2A and H- 2B visas, it also covers the Summer Work Travel (SWT) program, the largest of several programs under the J-1 visa for participants in work- and study-based exchange visitor programs. The SWT program is particularly relevant because participants work largely in unskilled jobs, including H-2B-like seasonal jobs at resorts and amusement parks.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.S. Income Distribution and Mobility: Trends and International Comparisons

The U.S. Income Distribution and Mobility: Trends and International Comparisons

Date: March 7, 2012
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: This report looks at the causes and effects of the recent United States low unemployment rate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Base Closures: Socioeconomic Impacts

Military Base Closures: Socioeconomic Impacts

Date: February 7, 2012
Creator: Cowan, Tadlock
Description: The most recent Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission submitted its final report to the Administration on September 8, 2005. Implementation of the BRAC round was officially completed on September 15, 2011. In the report, the commission rejected 13 of the initial Department of Defense recommendations, significantly modified the recommendations for 13 other installations, and approved 22 major closures. Early planning and decisive leadership from officials are important factors in addressing local socioeconomic impacts from base realignment and closing. Drawing from existing studies, this report assesses the potential community impacts and proposals for minimizing those impacts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Vulnerable Youth: Federal Mentoring Programs and Issues

Vulnerable Youth: Federal Mentoring Programs and Issues

Date: January 20, 2012
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Description: Youth mentoring refers to a relationship between youth—particularly those most at risk of experiencing negative outcomes in adolescence and adulthood—and the adults who support and guide them. The origin of the modern youth mentoring concept is credited to the efforts of charity groups that formed during the Progressive era of the early 1900s to provide practical assistance to poor and juvenile justice-involved youth, including help with finding employment. Issues relevant to the federal role in mentoring include the limitations of research on outcomes for mentored youth, the potential need for additional mentors, grantees' challenges in sustaining funding, and the possible discontinuation of federal mentoring funding.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits

Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits

Date: January 19, 2012
Creator: Carpenter, David H.
Description: This report gives an overview of the issues related to federal or state laws that condition the initial or ongoing receipt of governmental benefits on passing drug tests. These regulations are vulnerable to constitutional challenge, most often due to issues of personal privacy and Fourth Amendment protections against "unreasonable searches."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress

Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress

Date: January 12, 2012
Creator: Siskin, Alison
Description: Trafficking in persons (TIP) for the purposes of exploitation is believed to be one of the most prolific areas of international criminal activity and is of significant concern to the United States and the international community. This report discusses the global and ongoing problem of TIP in detail, as well as anti-TIP programs and U.S. and international efforts to combat TIP.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unauthorized Aliens' Access to Federal Benefits: Policy and Issues

Unauthorized Aliens' Access to Federal Benefits: Policy and Issues

Date: December 9, 2011
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report focuses on the policy and legislative debate surrounding unauthorized aliens' access to federal benefits. Federal law bars aliens residing without authorization in the United States from most federal benefits; however, there is a widely held perception that many unauthorized aliens obtain such benefits. The degree to which unauthorized resident aliens should be accorded certain rights and privileges as a result of their residence in the United States, along with the duties owed by such aliens given their presence, remains the subject of debate in Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Numerical Limits on Employment-Based Immigration: Analysis of the Per-Country Ceilings

Numerical Limits on Employment-Based Immigration: Analysis of the Per-Country Ceilings

Date: December 6, 2011
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: The report opens with brief explanations of the employment-based preference categories and the per-country ceilings governing annual admissions of LPRs. The focus is on the major employment-based preference categories. The report continues with a statistical analysis of the pending caseload of approved employment-based LPR petitions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unauthorized Aliens Residing in the United States: Estimates Since 1986

Unauthorized Aliens Residing in the United States: Estimates Since 1986

Date: September 22, 2011
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report discusses a rise in the unauthorized resident ("illegal") alien population from 1986 to 2010. It looks at reasons that illegal aliens stay resort to breaking the law and how illegal aliens affect the workforce in certain industries.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean

Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean

Date: September 9, 2011
Creator: Ribando Seelke, Clare
Description: This report looks at instances of trafficking in persons (TIP) in Latin America. It looks at current legislation in the U.S. to combat this problem.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department