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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Business and Labor Spending in U.S. Elections

Business and Labor Spending in U.S. Elections

Date: October 28, 1997
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E
Description: Federal election law has long prohibited corporate and union spending in federal elections, but distinctions in statutes and judicial rulings have opened avenues by which these groups have been able to spend money in the electoral process. Business groups make particular use of political action committee (PAC) donations to candidates and soft money donations to parties. Unions made prominent use of issue advocacy in 1996, but labor’s political strength lies in exempt activity communications with members. This report explains these tools and their use in today’s elections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Political Spending by Organized Labor: Background and Current Issues

Political Spending by Organized Labor: Background and Current Issues

Date: February 18, 1998
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Business and Labor Spending in U.S. Elections

Business and Labor Spending in U.S. Elections

Date: October 28, 1997
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Description: Federal election law has long prohibited corporate and union spending in federal elections, but distinctions in statutes and judicial rulings have opened avenues by which these groups have been able to spend money in the electoral process. Business groups make particular use of political action committee (PAC) donations to candidates and soft money donations to parties. Unions made prominent use of issue advocacy in 1996, but labor’s political strength lies in exempt activity communications with members. This report explains these tools and their use in today’s elections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits

Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits

Date: January 29, 2014
Creator: Carpenter, David H.
Description: This report gives an overview of the issues related to federal or state laws that condition the initial or ongoing receipt of governmental benefits on passing drug tests. These regulations are vulnerable to constitutional challenge, most often due to issues of personal privacy and Fourth Amendment protections against "unreasonable searches."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits

Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits

Date: March 6, 2015
Creator: Carpenter, David H.
Description: This report provides an overview of the Fourth Amendment in order to effectively evaluate the constitutionality of laws requiring suspicionless drug tests to receive governmental benefits. It then reviews five Supreme Court decisions that have evaluated these programs. The report concludes with a synthesis of the various factors that likely will be important to a future court's assessment of the constitutionality of these laws.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits

Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits

Date: January 19, 2012
Creator: Carpenter, David H.
Description: This report gives an overview of the issues related to federal or state laws that condition the initial or ongoing receipt of governmental benefits on passing drug tests. These regulations are vulnerable to constitutional challenge, most often due to issues of personal privacy and Fourth Amendment protections against "unreasonable searches."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gramm-Rudman-Hollings: Potential Economic Effects of Meeting Deficit Targets

Gramm-Rudman-Hollings: Potential Economic Effects of Meeting Deficit Targets

Date: September 16, 1987
Creator: Cashell, Brian W
Description: This report discusses the reduction of federal budget deficit and the effect on the rise of interest rates.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Inflation and the Real Minimum Wage: Fact Sheet

Inflation and the Real Minimum Wage: Fact Sheet

Date: January 27, 1999
Creator: Cashell, Brian W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automatic Cost of Living Adjustments: Some Economic and Practical Considerations

Automatic Cost of Living Adjustments: Some Economic and Practical Considerations

Date: January 11, 2010
Creator: Cashell, Brian W.
Description: This report looks at how automatic cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) influence the budget and identifies major programs that have indexing provisions. It also explains what price indexes attempt to measure and discusses some of their weaknesses. Finally, it points out some practical things to keep in mind when establishing an indexing provision.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unemployment and Economic Recovery

Unemployment and Economic Recovery

Date: November 17, 2009
Creator: Cashell, Brian W.
Description: This report examines the relationship between economic growth and the unemployment rate to anticipate possible future developments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Emergency Response: Civil Liability of Volunteer Health Professionals

Emergency Response: Civil Liability of Volunteer Health Professionals

Date: January 19, 2011
Creator: Chu, Vivian S.
Description: This report discusses the patchwork of federal and state laws that operate to protect volunteers, which can include volunteer health professionals (VHPs), and those laws that trigger liability protection only for VHPs — with a focus on some of the midwestern states in addition to the Gulf region.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Tort Claims Act

Federal Tort Claims Act

Date: April 27, 2009
Creator: Cohen, Henry & Cohen, Henry
Description: The Federal Tort Claims Act is the statute by which the United States authorizes tort suits to be brought against itself. With exceptions, it makes the United States liable for injuries caused by the negligent or wrongful act or omission of any federal employee acting within the scope of his employment, in accordance with the law of the state where the act or omission occurred. This report discusses, among other things, the application of the Feres doctrine to suits for injuries caused by medical malpractice in the military, the prohibition of suits by victims of atomic testing, Supreme Court cases interpreting the discretionary function exception, the extent to which federal employees may be held liable for torts they commit in the scope of their employment, and the government contractor defense to products liability design defect suits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Apprenticeship in the United States: Frequently Asked Questions

Apprenticeship in the United States: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: August 25, 2015
Creator: Collins, Benjamin
Description: This Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) report focuses on the Registered Apprenticeship system, through which the U.S. Department of Labor (or a recognized state apprenticeship agency) certifies a program as meeting certain federal requirements related to duration, intensity, and benefit to the apprentice. The report also discusses federal programs for which supporting apprenticeship activities is an allowable, but not required, use of funds.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Apprenticeship in the United States: Frequently Asked Questions

Apprenticeship in the United States: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: January 29, 2016
Creator: Collins, Benjamin
Description: This report answers frequently asked questions about apprenticeship and the federal activities that support this training approach. Apprenticeship is a job training strategy that combines on-the-job training with related instruction, typically provided in a classroom setting.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Right to Work Laws: Legislative Background and Empirical Research

Right to Work Laws: Legislative Background and Empirical Research

Date: December 6, 2012
Creator: Collins, Benjamin
Description: This report is divided into two parts. The first part discusses right to work (RTW) laws themselves. It provides a brief legislative history on the federal role in the regulation of unions, a summary of the origin and development of RTW laws, a discussion of recent events at the state level, and federal legislation related to RTW. The second part of the report reviews the varied empirical research on the effects of RTW laws. Specifically, it will discuss the mixed evidence indicating relationships between RTW laws and other economic outcomes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers

Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers

Date: March 5, 2014
Creator: Collins, Benjamin
Description: This report provides background on the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers (TAA) program, which provides federal assistance to workers who have been adversely affected by foreign trade. The report discusses TAA eligibility and benefits as set by the Trade Adjustment Assistance Extension Act of 2011; describes how the program is funded and administered; and presents data on recent application activity and benefit usage.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers

Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers

Date: July 11, 2012
Creator: Collins, Benjamin
Description: This report provides background on the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers (TAA) program, which provides federal assistance to workers who have been adversely affected by foreign trade. It was most recently authorized by the Trade Adjustment Assistance Extension Act of 2011 (TAAEA; Title II of P.L. 112-40). The report discusses TAA eligibility and benefits as set by TAAEA; describes how the program is funded and administered; and presents data on recent application activity and benefit usage.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers: Reauthorization Proposals in the 114th Congress, In Brief

Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers: Reauthorization Proposals in the 114th Congress, In Brief

Date: April 28, 2015
Creator: Collins, Benjamin
Description: This report is designed to provide assistance in considering Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) for Workers reauthorization efforts in the 114th Congress. It begins with background information on TAA and a summary of recent legislation. It then presents a table that compares a recent reauthorization proposal with provisions in current and prior law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act

Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act

Date: September 4, 2012
Creator: Collins, Benjamin
Description: Report that discusses the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act in brief, especially as related to Congress's renewed interest in the Act due to the current financial crises and recession.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Equity Legislation

Pay Equity Legislation

Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Collins, Benjamin & Feder, Jody
Description: This report gives an overview of "pay equity," a term referring to the fact that women as a group are paid less than men. It includes the history of pay equity, legal and legislative background, and recent legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Equity: Legislative and Legal Developments

Pay Equity: Legislative and Legal Developments

Date: November 22, 2013
Creator: Collins, Benjamin & Feder, Jody
Description: This report discusses pay equity litigation, including Wal-Mart Stores v. Dukes, a case in which the Supreme Court rejected class action status for current and former female Wal-Mart employees who allege that the company has engaged in pay discrimination.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Use of Union Dues for Political Purposes: A Legal Analysis

The Use of Union Dues for Political Purposes: A Legal Analysis

Date: June 2, 1997
Creator: Contrubis, John & Lee, Margaret Mikyung
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Steel: Legacy Cost Issue

Steel: Legacy Cost Issue

Date: May 29, 2002
Creator: Cooney, Stephen
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Steel: Legacy Cost Issue

Steel: Legacy Cost Issue

Date: August 15, 2002
Creator: Cooney, Stephen
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department