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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Older Workers: Employment and Retirement Trends
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7258/
The Buy American Act in Brief: Preferences for "Domestic" Supplies and Construction Materials in Federal Procurements
This report discusses the Buy American Act of 1933, which is the earliest and arguably the best known of various statutes regarding federal procurement of domestic products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284495/
Immigration: The Effects on Low-Skilled and High-Skilled Native-Born Workers
The report opens with a discussion of how to analyze the impact of immigrants on the pay and job opportunities of native-born workers. It then uses this framework to examine and interpret the empirical literature on the subject. The report concludes with a discussion of policy implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26088/
Immigration: The Effects on Low-Skilled and High-Skilled Native-Born Workers
The report opens with a discussion of how to analyze the impact of immigrants on the pay and job opportunities of native-born workers. It then uses this framework to examine and interpret the empirical literature on the subject. The report concludes with a discussion of policy implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29492/
Immigration: The Effects on Low-Skilled and High-Skilled Native-Born Workers
The report opens with a discussion of how to analyze the impact of immigrants on the pay and job opportunities of native-born workers. It then uses this framework to examine and interpret the empirical literature on the subject. The report concludes with a discussion of policy implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29491/
Immigration: The Effects on Low-Skilled and High-Skilled Native-Born Workers
The report opens with a discussion of how to analyze the impact of immigrants on the pay and job opportunities of native-born workers. It then uses this framework to examine and interpret the empirical literature on the subject. The report concludes with a discussion of policy implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29490/
The Executive Schedule IV Pay Cap on General Schedule Compensation
This report provides information on the effect of the Executive Schedule (EX-IV) pay cap on pay for General Schedule (GS) employees; and discusses the potential implications of the pay cap on salaries, pensions, and the ability of agencies to recruit and retain staff. The report also provides some background information on the GS and Executive Schedule pay systems and the annual pay adjustment processes in those systems. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462528/
Proposed Funding for Workforce Development in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009
This report provides a brief overview of the key provisions related to workforce development programs administered by the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) that were included in the House and Senate versions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). It also provides estimates of state grants for programs for which these estimates are relevant and for which data needed to produce the estimates are available. The estimates are shown in appendix tables that present state-by-state allocations for adult, youth, and dislocated worker programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462727/
Immigration: Policy Considerations Related to Guest Worker Programs
This report discusses guest worker programs. The United States has two main programs for temporarily importing low-skilled workers, or guest workers. Agricultural guest workers enter through the H-2A visa program, and other guest workers enter through the H-2B visa program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503716/
Temporary Extension of Unemployment Benefits: Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08)
In July 2008, a new temporary unemployment benefit, the Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) program, began. The most recent legislation, P.L. 111-205, extended the authorization of the EUC08 program, but did not change the structure of the program or augment benefits. This temporary unemployment insurance program provides up to 20 additional weeks of unemployment benefits to certain workers who have exhausted their rights to regular unemployment compensation (UC) benefits. This report discusses the various tiers of the EUC08 program, as well as related legislation. This report will be updated to reflect current congressional action or programmatic changes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31503/
Winter Fuels Outlook 2010-2011
This report discusses findings gleaned through the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) publication titled Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook (STEWFO) for the 2010-2011 winter heating season. STEWFO projects how much American consumers should expect to see heating expenditures rise during the 2010-2011 winter season. These findings take into account the currently slow economic growth, high unemployment numbers, and uncertainty regarding the federal funding of the Low Income Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29625/
Temporary Extension of Unemployment Benefits: Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08)
In July 2008, a new temporary unemployment benefit, the Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) program, began. The most recent legislation, P.L. 111-205, extended the authorization of the EUC08 program, but did not change the structure of the program or augment benefits. This temporary unemployment insurance program provides up to 20 additional weeks of unemployment benefits to certain workers who have exhausted their rights to regular unemployment compensation (UC) benefits. This report discusses the various tiers of the EUC08 program, as well as related legislation. This report will be updated to reflect current congressional action or programmatic changes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29756/
Unemployment Insurance: Programs and Benefits
This report describes three kinds of unemployment benefit programs: regular Unemployment Compensation (UC), Extended Benefits (EB), and Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) . The report explains their basic eligibility requirements, benefits, and financing structure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272097/
The Federal Minimum Wage: In Brief
This report discusses the minimum wage provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)that have been amended numerous times since 1938, typically for the purpose of expanding coverage or raising the wage rate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276917/
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC): A Fact Sheet
The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) is a federal government agency established in 1974 by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA; P.L. 93-406). It was created to protect the pensions of participants and beneficiaries covered by private sector, defined benefit (DB) plans. The PBGC is chaired by the Secretary of Labor, with the Secretaries of the Treasury and Commerce serving as board members. In the 112th Congress, an amendment offered by Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid to S. 1813, Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21), contains provisions that would address the use of excess defined benefit pension plan assets and the interest rates that defined benefit plans use to value plan liabilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85364/
Compensated Work Sharing Arrangements (Short-Time Compensation) as an Alternative to Layoffs
This report describes short-term compensation (STC) as a beneficial alternative to layoffs. It also describes the status of STC (or work sharing) in the U.S., particularly as it varies from state to state. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103062/
Unemployment Insurance: Programs and Benefits
This report describes three kinds of unemployment benefit programs: regular Unemployment Compensation (UC), Extended Benefits (EB), and Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) . The report explains their basic eligibility requirements, benefits, and financing structure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228022/
Unemployment Related to Terrorist Attacks: Proposals to Assist Affected Workers in the Airlines and Related Industries
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7571/
Farm Labor Shortages and Immigration Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1378/
The Male-Female Wage Gap: A Fact Sheet
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1262/
The Minimum Wage: An Overview of Issues Before the 106th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1264/
Farm Labor Shortages and Immigration Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8573/
Job Training Programs: Reauthorization and Funding Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8828/
Navy Ship Deployments: New Approaches - Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9889/
Unemployment Insurance: Available Unemployment Benefits and Legislative Activity
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8956/
Farm Labor Shortages and Immigration Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8639/
Worker Relocation Assistance: Moving People to Jobs
One characteristic of the dislocated worker problem is that a mismatch exists between the number and kinds of jobs offered by employers and the number and kinds of skills possessed by workers in the same geographic area. At the same time, other geographic areas have unfilled job openings and relatively low unemployment rates. Government-assisted worker relocation is one tool of employment policy that might be used to reduce these regional imbalances in labor supply and demand. This report describes the U.S. experience with both unassisted and Government-assisted worker relocation. It examines the applicability of this experience to the current dislocated worker problem, as well. In addition, the report evaluates the feasibility of establishing a nationwide worker relocation program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8813/
Farm Labor Shortages and Immigration Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5729/
Eliminating International Child Labor: U.S. and International Initiatives
In November 1999, during the World Trade Organization (WTO) conference in Seattle, hundreds of protestors took to the street to protest a number of issues, including the international use of child labor, which has become increasingly important in discussions on international trade, human rights and international assistance. While awareness of the issue has increased, the ability to address the complex problem has been complicated by a number of related factors including rising poverty, surging HIV/AIDS infection rates, and a lack of relevant education. This report will outline the scope of the international child labor problem, explain the difficulties in eliminating it, describe U.S. and international child labor programs, and present some issues Congress may consider. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9080/
Homeland Security and Labor-Management Relations:
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9401/
Inflation and the Real Minimum Wage: A Fact Sheet
Report that discusses the federal minimum wage which is not indexed to the price level. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227851/
Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA)
The Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) program provides monetary assistance to individuals unemployed as a direct result of a major disaster and who are not eligible for regular Unemployment Compensation (UC) benefits. DUA is funded through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). DUA is administered by the Department of Labor (DOL) through each state’s UC agency. In the 109th Congress, P.L. 109-176 was signed into law on March 6, 2006, extending the duration of DUA benefits from 26 to 39 weeks for victims of the Hurricane Katrina and Rita disasters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7500/
Unemployment Compensation (UC) and the Unemployment Trust Fund (UTF): Funding UC Benefits
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7340/
The U.S. Income Distribution and Mobility: Trends and International Comparisons
This report looks at the causes and effects of the recent United States low unemployment rate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86603/
Antipoverty Effects of Unemployment Insurance
This report examines the antipoverty effects of unemployment insurance (UI) benefits during the past recession and the economic recovery. It includes estimates of the effects on the poverty rate for the unemployed, for those receiving UI, and for families that report at least one family member receiving UI. It also estimates how much of reported UI benefits went directly to decreasing family poverty levels. This report's analysis shows that UI benefits appear to reduce the prevalence of poverty significantly among the population that receives them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122208/
Unemployment Insurance: Programs and Benefits
This report describes three kinds of unemployment benefit programs: regular Unemployment Compensation (UC), Extended Benefits (EB), and Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) . The report explains their basic eligibility requirements, benefits, and financing structure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122298/
Unemployment: Issues in the 112th Congress
This report briefly reviews the situation in the 2012 labor market, expands on the policy steps taken to date, and analyzes policy issues that typically arise during consideration of stimulus legislation. Three policy issues are examined: whether to take additional measures to increase jobs, what measures might be most effective, and how job creation proposals should be financed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122205/
Extending Unemployment Compensation Benefits During Recessions
This report describes the history of temporary federal extensions to unemployment benefits from 1980 to the present. It has five sections which discuss: [1] background information on unemployment compensation (UC) benefits, [2] a definition of a recession and the process of declaring a recession, [3] a summary of the legislative history of federal extensions of unemployment benefits, [4] figures examining the statistics of recessions, and [5] previous methods for financing temporary recession programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122320/
Unemployment Insurance: Programs and Benefits
This report describes three kinds of unemployment benefit programs: regular Unemployment Compensation (UC), Extended Benefits (EB), and Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08). The report explains their basic eligibility requirements, benefits, and financing structure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282324/
U.S. Manufacturing in International Perspective
This report contains a series of charts and tables that depict the position of manufacturing in the United States relative to other countries according to various metrics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282349/
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation: A Fact Sheet
The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) is a federal government agency established in 1974 by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) (P.L. 93- 406). It was created to protect the pensions of participants and beneficiaries covered by private sector, defined benefit (DB) plans. These pension plans provide a specified monthly benefit at retirement, usually either a percent of salary or a flat dollar amount multiplied by years of service. Defined contribution plans, such as §401(k) plans, are not insured. The PBGC is chaired by the Secretary of Labor, with the Secretaries of Treasury and Commerce serving as board members. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26069/
Federal Programs Available to Unemployed Workers
There are four groups of federal programs that target unemployed workers: unemployment insurance programs, health care assistance, job search assistance, and training. This report describes these programs, how they interact with each other, and their funding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491494/
State Minimum Wages: An Overview
This report begins with a brief discussion of Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) minimum wage coverage. It then provides a summary of state minimum wage laws, followed by an examination of rates and mechanisms of adjustments in states with minimum wage levels above the FLSA rate. The report also discusses the interaction of federal and state minimum wages over time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491514/
Temporary Extension of Unemployment Benefits: Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08)
This report discusses the new temporary unemployment benefit, the various tiers of the Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) program, as well as related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491356/
The Increase in Unemployment Since 2007: Is It Cyclical or Structural?
This report assesses the relative magnitudes of cyclical and structural unemployment as they respond to different policy measures. An analysis of changes since 2007 in a variety of labor market indicators across industries and areas finds patterns that strongly suggest most of the increase in the U.S. unemployment rate is cyclical (i.e., due to depressed aggregate demand). Empirical studies suggest that, although structural unemployment has temporarily increased, it accounted for a minority of the rise in the unemployment rate in recent years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463079/
Selected Characteristics of Private and Public Sector Workers
This report begins with an analysis of the trends in employment in the private and public sectors. The public sector is separated into employees of the federal government, state governments, and local governments. Next, the report analyzes selected characteristics of private and public sector workers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462358/
Extending Unemployment Compensation Benefits During Recessions
This report describes the history of temporary federal extensions to unemployment benefits from 1980 to the present. Among these extensions is the Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) program created by P.L. 110-252. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462340/
Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08): Status of Benefits Prior to Expiration
This report summarizes the structure of Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) benefits available prior to program expiration at the end of calendar year 2013 and provides the legislative history of the EUC08 program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462319/
Overview of Labor Enforcement Issues in Free Trade Agreements
This report identifies two types of labor enforcement issues: those that relate to the free trade agreements (FTA) provisions themselves, including their definitions and their enforceability, and those that relate to executive branch responsibilities, such as resource availability and determining dispute settlement case priorities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462534/
U.S. Manufacturing in International Perspective
This report is designed to inform the debate over the health of U.S. manufacturing through a series of charts and tables that depict the position of the United States relative to other countries according to various metrics. Understanding which trends in manufacturing reflect factors that may be unique to the United States and which are related to broader changes in technology or consumer preferences may be helpful in formulating policies intended to aid firms or workers engaged in manufacturing activity. This report does not describe or discuss specific policy options. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463253/