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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Overview of Labor Enforcement Issues in Free Trade Agreements

Overview of Labor Enforcement Issues in Free Trade Agreements

Date: January 29, 2014
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Description: This report identifies two types of labor enforcement issues related to Free Trade Agreements approved by Congress: (1) those that relate to the FTA provisions themselves, including their definitions and their enforceability, and (2) those that relate to executive branch responsibilities, such as resource availability and determining dispute settlement case priorities. This report does not address other labor issues in the various free trade agreements, including cooperative consultation provisions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Overview of Labor Enforcement Issues in Free Trade Agreements

Overview of Labor Enforcement Issues in Free Trade Agreements

Date: January 31, 2013
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Description: This report identifies two types of labor enforcement issues: those that relate to the free trade agreements (FTA) provisions themselves, including their definitions and their enforceability, and those that relate to executive branch responsibilities, such as resource availability and determining dispute settlement case priorities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Overview of Labor Enforcement Issues in Free Trade Agreements

Overview of Labor Enforcement Issues in Free Trade Agreements

Date: February 22, 2016
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Description: This report discusses free trade agreements (FTAs) that have enforceable labor provisions, grouped into four model types. It outlines the provisions for each and identifies two types of labor enforcement issues: (1) those that relate to the FTA provisions themselves, including their definitions and their enforceability, and (2) those that relate to executive branch responsibilities, such as resource availability and determining dispute settlement case priorities. This report does not address other labor issues in the various free trade agreements, including cooperative consultation and capacity-building provisions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Overview of the Employment-Population Ratio

An Overview of the Employment-Population Ratio

Date: May 27, 2015
Creator: Donovan, Sarah A.
Description: This report provides an overview of the employment-population ratio. It opens with a discussion of its value as a labor market indicator, noting its key features and limitations. This is followed by an examination of long-term and recent trends. The contribution of demographic and economic factors to recent patterns is explored at the close of the report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Parental Leave: Legislation in the 100th Congress

Parental Leave: Legislation in the 100th Congress

Date: October 1, 1987
Creator: Gladstone, Leslie W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Compatibility for Federal White-Collar Workers

Pay Compatibility for Federal White-Collar Workers

Date: August 7, 1985
Creator: Schwemle, Barbara L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Discrimination Claims Under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act: A Legal Analysis of the Supreme Court’s Decision in Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Inc.

Pay Discrimination Claims Under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act: A Legal Analysis of the Supreme Court’s Decision in Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Inc.

Date: June 28, 2007
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: This report discusses Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Inc., a recent case in which the Supreme Court considered the timeliness of a sex discrimination claim filed under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, which prohibits employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Equity Legislation

Pay Equity Legislation

Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Collins, Benjamin & Feder, Jody
Description: This report gives an overview of "pay equity," a term referring to the fact that women as a group are paid less than men. It includes the history of pay equity, legal and legislative background, and recent legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Equity Legislation

Pay Equity Legislation

Date: September 20, 2010
Creator: Feder, Jody & Levine, Linda
Description: This report begins by showing the trend in the male-female wage gap and by examining the explanations that have been offered for its enduring presence. It next discusses the major laws directed at eliminating sex-based wage discrimination as well as relevant federal court cases. The report closes with a description of pay equity legislation that has been considered by Congress in recent years, including bills introduced in the 111th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Equity Legislation in the 107th Congress

Pay Equity Legislation in the 107th Congress

Date: March 26, 2001
Creator: Dale, Charles V & Levine, Linda
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Equity Legislation in the 107th Congress

Pay Equity Legislation in the 107th Congress

Date: May 30, 2001
Creator: Dale, Charles V & Levine, Linda
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Equity Legislation in the 108th Congress

Pay Equity Legislation in the 108th Congress

Date: April 17, 2003
Creator: Dale, Charles V & Levine, Linda
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Equity Legislation in the 108th Congress

Pay Equity Legislation in the 108th Congress

Date: July 13, 2004
Creator: Dale, Charles V & Levine, Linda
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Equity Legislation in the 109th Congress

Pay Equity Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: May 11, 2005
Creator: Dale, Charles V & Levine, Linda
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Equity: Legislative and Legal Developments

Pay Equity: Legislative and Legal Developments

Date: November 22, 2013
Creator: Collins, Benjamin & Feder, Jody
Description: This report discusses pay equity litigation, including Wal-Mart Stores v. Dukes, a case in which the Supreme Court rejected class action status for current and former female Wal-Mart employees who allege that the company has engaged in pay discrimination.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Equity: Legislative and Legal Developments

Pay Equity: Legislative and Legal Developments

Date: May 20, 2016
Creator: Feder, Jody & Collins, Benjamin
Description: This report begins by presenting data on earnings for male and female workers and by discussing explanations that have been offered for the differences in earnings. It next discusses the major laws directed at eliminating sex-based wage discrimination as well as relevant federal court cases. The report closes with a description of pay equity legislation that has been considered or enacted by Congress in recent years.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Equity - The Comparable Worth Issue: Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value; By What Standards and By What Means?

Pay Equity - The Comparable Worth Issue: Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value; By What Standards and By What Means?

Date: April 20, 1983
Creator: Ahmuty, Alice L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay-for-Performance: Linking Employee Pay to Performance Appraisal

Pay-for-Performance: Linking Employee Pay to Performance Appraisal

Date: October 20, 2008
Creator: Ginsberg, Wendy
Description: This report discusses issues related to measuring performance across the federal government and analyzes a variety of methods utilized by the government to measure employee performance and its linkage to pay.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Payday Loans: Federal Regulatory Initiatives

Payday Loans: Federal Regulatory Initiatives

Date: May 23, 2005
Creator: Smale, Pauline
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation: A Fact Sheet

Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation: A Fact Sheet

Date: January 29, 2008
Creator: Topoleski, John J.
Description: The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) is a federal government agency established in 1974 by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) (P.L. 93- 406). It was created to protect the pensions of participants and beneficiaries covered by private sector, defined benefit (DB) plans. These pension plans provide a specified monthly benefit at retirement, usually either a percent of salary or a flat dollar amount multiplied by years of service. Defined contribution plans, such as §401(k) plans, are not insured. The PBGC is chaired by the Secretary of Labor, with the Secretaries of Treasury and Commerce serving as board members.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC): A Fact Sheet

Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC): A Fact Sheet

Date: April 16, 2012
Creator: Topoleski, John J.
Description: The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) is a federal government agency established in 1974 by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA; P.L. 93-406). It was created to protect the pensions of participants and beneficiaries covered by private sector, defined benefit (DB) plans. The PBGC is chaired by the Secretary of Labor, with the Secretaries of the Treasury and Commerce serving as board members. In the 112th Congress, an amendment offered by Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid to S. 1813, Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21), contains provisions that would address the use of excess defined benefit pension plan assets and the interest rates that defined benefit plans use to value plan liabilities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Personnel Management Flexibility for the Internal Revenue Service: P.L. 105-206

Personnel Management Flexibility for the Internal Revenue Service: P.L. 105-206

Date: July 24, 1998
Creator: Schwemle, Barbara L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Plant Closings, Mass Layoffs, and Worker Dislocations: Data Issues

Plant Closings, Mass Layoffs, and Worker Dislocations: Data Issues

Date: March 29, 1993
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Description: For at least 15 years Members of Congress have continued to ask: How many U.S. manufacturing plants have closed? For at least 15 years they have continued to ask: How many U.S. manufacturing plants have relocated abroad, and where have they gone? For at least 15 years the answer has been: For the most part, those questions can't be answered, based on Government data. How many plants are moving to Mexico? What industries and what States are the plants from? How many U.S. workers are losing their jobs as a result? It appears that still, after two legislative attempts to mandate collection of these data, the Government publishes no counts of U.S. plant closings, and almost no information on plant relocations. Options for strengthening the data systems include addressing three main weaknesses: inadequate data program design, a plant closing definition that misses its mark, and publication of partial instead of complete survey results.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Political Spending by Organized Labor: Background and Current Issues

Political Spending by Organized Labor: Background and Current Issues

Date: February 18, 1998
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department