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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Public Safety Employer-Employee Cooperation Act

The Public Safety Employer-Employee Cooperation Act

Date: December 9, 2010
Creator: Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Description: This report reviews the Public Safety Employer-Employee Cooperation Act (PSEECA) and discusses the possible impact of the legislation. The report also identifies existing state laws that recognize collective bargaining rights for public safety employees, and considers the constitutional concerns raised by the measure.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Vulnerable Youth: Employment and Job Training Programs

Vulnerable Youth: Employment and Job Training Programs

Date: January 13, 2014
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Description: This report provides an overview of federal employment programs for vulnerable young people. It begins with a discussion of the current challenges in preparing all youth today for the workforce. The report then provides a chronology of job training and employment programs for at-risk youth that began in the 1930s and were expanded or modified from the 1960s through the 1990s. It goes on to discuss the five youth programs authorized under the Workforce Investment Act (WIA), and draws comparisons between these programs. Following this section is a detailed discussion of each of the programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unemployment Through Layoffs and Offshore Outsourcing

Unemployment Through Layoffs and Offshore Outsourcing

Date: December 22, 2010
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: This report focuses on unemployment through layoffs. It sets forth the publicly available sources of information on layoffs and determines whether they provide data on the reasons that underlie those events (e.g., weak product demand, financial difficulty). The report next briefly provides a context for the offshore outsourcing phenomenon and its relationship to gross and net employment change. It then analyzes the trend in, severity of, and explanations of extended mass layoffs before concluding with an examination of those layoff events that involve movement-of work to foreign-based affiliates of the U.S. company that called the layoff or to foreign businesses, for example.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA): An Overview

The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA): An Overview

Date: May 3, 2013
Creator: Mayer, Gerald; Collins, Benjamin & Bradley, David H.
Description: This report discusses the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) that provides workers with minimum wage, overtime pay, and child labor protections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unauthorized Aliens' Access to Federal Benefits: Policy and Issues

Unauthorized Aliens' Access to Federal Benefits: Policy and Issues

Date: September 22, 2014
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report focuses on the policy and legislative debate surrounding unauthorized aliens' access to federal benefits. The number of foreign-born people residing in the United States (40.7 million) is at the highest level in our history and, as a portion of the U.S. population, has reached a percentage (13%) not seen since the early 20th century.1 Of the foreign-born residents in the United States, approximately one-third are speculated to be unauthorized residents (often characterized as illegal aliens).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Compensated Work Sharing Arrangements (Short-Time Compensation) as an Alternative to Layoffs

Compensated Work Sharing Arrangements (Short-Time Compensation) as an Alternative to Layoffs

Date: August 8, 2014
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M.
Description: This report describes short-term compensation (STC) as a beneficial alternative to layoffs. It also describes the status of STC (or work sharing) in the U.S., particularly as it varies from state to state.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electronic Employment Eligibility Verification

Electronic Employment Eligibility Verification

Date: January 9, 2014
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Description: This report discusses the employment verification program that started out as a pilot program in November 1997 and it is currently authorized until September 30, 2015, in accordance with P.L. 112-176.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits

Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits

Date: March 6, 2015
Creator: Carpenter, David H.
Description: This report provides an overview of the Fourth Amendment in order to effectively evaluate the constitutionality of laws requiring suspicionless drug tests to receive governmental benefits. It then reviews five Supreme Court decisions that have evaluated these programs. The report concludes with a synthesis of the various factors that likely will be important to a future court's assessment of the constitutionality of these laws.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Contracting with Inverted Domestic Corporations: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

Contracting with Inverted Domestic Corporations: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

Date: February 6, 2015
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Lunder, Erika K.
Description: This report provides the answers to 14 frequently asked questions regarding the current restrictions on contracting with inverted domestic corporations; certain amendments thereto proposed, but not enacted, in the 113th Congress; and the relationship between the prohibitions upon contracting with inverted domestic corporations and other provisions of law that restrict dealings with "foreign" contractors.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits

Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits

Date: January 19, 2012
Creator: Carpenter, David H.
Description: This report gives an overview of the issues related to federal or state laws that condition the initial or ongoing receipt of governmental benefits on passing drug tests. These regulations are vulnerable to constitutional challenge, most often due to issues of personal privacy and Fourth Amendment protections against "unreasonable searches."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Vulnerable Youth: Employment and Job Training Programs

Vulnerable Youth: Employment and Job Training Programs

Date: May 11, 2012
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Description: In an increasingly global economy, and with retirement starting for the Baby Boomer generation, Congress has indicated a strong interest in ensuring that today's young people have the educational attainment and employment experience needed to become highly skilled workers, contributing taxpayers, and successful participants in civic life. Challenges in the economy and among certain youth populations, however, have heightened concern among policymakers that some young people may not be prepared to fill these roles. This report covers this history and current status of governmental assistance in federal youth employment and job training programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Vulnerable Youth: Federal Mentoring Programs and Issues

Vulnerable Youth: Federal Mentoring Programs and Issues

Date: January 20, 2012
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Description: Youth mentoring refers to a relationship between youth—particularly those most at risk of experiencing negative outcomes in adolescence and adulthood—and the adults who support and guide them. The origin of the modern youth mentoring concept is credited to the efforts of charity groups that formed during the Progressive era of the early 1900s to provide practical assistance to poor and juvenile justice-involved youth, including help with finding employment. Issues relevant to the federal role in mentoring include the limitations of research on outcomes for mentored youth, the potential need for additional mentors, grantees' challenges in sustaining funding, and the possible discontinuation of federal mentoring funding.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unauthorized Aliens' Access to Federal Benefits: Policy and Issues

Unauthorized Aliens' Access to Federal Benefits: Policy and Issues

Date: December 9, 2011
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report focuses on the policy and legislative debate surrounding unauthorized aliens' access to federal benefits. Federal law bars aliens residing without authorization in the United States from most federal benefits; however, there is a widely held perception that many unauthorized aliens obtain such benefits. The degree to which unauthorized resident aliens should be accorded certain rights and privileges as a result of their residence in the United States, along with the duties owed by such aliens given their presence, remains the subject of debate in Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unemployment Compensation (UC): Eligibility for Students Under State and Federal Laws

Unemployment Compensation (UC): Eligibility for Students Under State and Federal Laws

Date: September 7, 2012
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M. & Eder, Alan
Description: Report that describes the state variations student disqualification from Unemployment Compensation benefits while they attend school.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Vulnerable Youth: Federal Mentoring Programs and Issues

Vulnerable Youth: Federal Mentoring Programs and Issues

Date: October 22, 2015
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Description: This report begins with an overview of the purpose of mentoring, including a brief discussion on research of structured mentoring programs. The report then describes the evolution of federal policies on mentoring since the early 1990s. The report provides an overview of the federal mentoring initiatives that are currently funded.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Contracting with Inverted Domestic Corporations: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

Contracting with Inverted Domestic Corporations: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

Date: November 7, 2014
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Lunder, Erika K.
Description: Recent reports that certain entities continued to receive federal government contracts after reincorporating overseas have prompted questions about current and proposed restrictions on contracting with “inverted domestic corporations.” These questions are shaped, in part, by the broader debate over whether such corporations are to be seen as “deserters,” who change their corporate citizenship to avoid paying U.S. taxes, or as evidencing systemic problems in the U.S. tax code. This report provides the answers to 14 frequently asked questions regarding the current restrictions on contracting with inverted domestic corporations, proposed amendments thereto, and the relationship between prohibitions upon contracting with inverted domestic corporations and other provisions of law that restrict dealings with “foreign” contractors.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Contracting with Inverted Domestic Corporations: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

Contracting with Inverted Domestic Corporations: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

Date: May 11, 2015
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Lunder, Erika K.
Description: Recent reports that certain entities continued to receive federal government contracts after reincorporating overseas have prompted questions about current and proposed restrictions on contracting with “inverted domestic corporations.” These questions are shaped, in part, by the broader debate over whether such corporations are to be seen as “deserters,” who change their corporate citizenship to avoid paying U.S. taxes, or as evidencing systemic problems in the U.S. tax code. This report provides the answers to 14 frequently asked questions regarding the current restrictions on contracting with inverted domestic corporations, proposed amendments thereto, and the relationship between prohibitions upon contracting with inverted domestic corporations and other provisions of law that restrict dealings with “foreign” contractors.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cost-of-Living Adjustments for Federal Civil Service Annuities

Cost-of-Living Adjustments for Federal Civil Service Annuities

Date: November 1, 2013
Creator: Isaacs, Katelin P.
Description: This report discusses the Cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) for the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) and the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS) are based on the rate of inflation as measured by the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W). All CSRS retirees and survivors receive COLAs. Under FERS, however, non-disabled retirees under age 62 do not receive COLAs. This report discusses cost-of-living adjustments for government retirees, as well as related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Equity: Legislative and Legal Developments

Pay Equity: Legislative and Legal Developments

Date: November 22, 2013
Creator: Collins, Benjamin & Feder, Jody
Description: This report discusses pay equity litigation, including Wal-Mart Stores v. Dukes, a case in which the Supreme Court rejected class action status for current and former female Wal-Mart employees who allege that the company has engaged in pay discrimination.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Tip Credit Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA): In Brief

The Tip Credit Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA): In Brief

Date: March 27, 2014
Creator: Bradley, David H.
Description: This report discusses the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), enacted in 1938 (P.L. 75-718), which is the federal legislation that establishes the general minimum wage that must be paid to all covered workers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers

Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers

Date: March 5, 2014
Creator: Collins, Benjamin
Description: This report provides background on the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers (TAA) program, which provides federal assistance to workers who have been adversely affected by foreign trade. The report discusses TAA eligibility and benefits as set by the Trade Adjustment Assistance Extension Act of 2011; describes how the program is funded and administered; and presents data on recent application activity and benefit usage.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unemployment: Issues in the 113th Congress

Unemployment: Issues in the 113th Congress

Date: December 31, 2013
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Description: This report addresses three policy issues: whether to take additional measures to increase jobs (or avoid contractionary policies), what measures might be most effective, and how job creation proposals should be financed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Tax Rates and Economic Growth

Tax Rates and Economic Growth

Date: January 2, 2014
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G. & Marples, Donald J.
Description: This report summarizes the evidence on the relationship between tax rates and economic growth, referring in a number of cases to more-detailed CRS reports.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Postal Service Workforce Size and Employment Categories, FY1994-FY2013

U.S. Postal Service Workforce Size and Employment Categories, FY1994-FY2013

Date: October 7, 2014
Creator: Francis, Kathryn A.
Description: This report provides data from the past 20 years on the size of the U.S. Postal Service's (USPS's) workforce. Further, this report examines trends in its workforce composition, particularly focusing on shifts in the ratio between career and non-career employment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department