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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Unauthorized Aliens Residing in the United States: Estimates Since 1986

Unauthorized Aliens Residing in the United States: Estimates Since 1986

Date: September 22, 2011
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report discusses a rise in the unauthorized resident ("illegal") alien population from 1986 to 2010. It looks at reasons that illegal aliens stay resort to breaking the law and how illegal aliens affect the workforce in certain industries.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Equity Legislation

Pay Equity Legislation

Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Collins, Benjamin
Description: This report gives an overview of "pay equity," a term referring to the fact that women as a group are paid less than men. It includes the history of pay equity, legal and legislative background, and recent legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits

Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits

Date: January 19, 2012
Creator: Carpenter, David H.
Description: This report gives an overview of the issues related to federal or state laws that condition the initial or ongoing receipt of governmental benefits on passing drug tests. These regulations are vulnerable to constitutional challenge, most often due to issues of personal privacy and Fourth Amendment protections against "unreasonable searches."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress

Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress

Date: January 12, 2012
Creator: Siskin, Alison
Description: Trafficking in persons (TIP) for the purposes of exploitation is believed to be one of the most prolific areas of international criminal activity and is of significant concern to the United States and the international community. This report discusses the global and ongoing problem of TIP in detail, as well as anti-TIP programs and U.S. and international efforts to combat TIP.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Vulnerable Youth: Federal Mentoring Programs and Issues

Vulnerable Youth: Federal Mentoring Programs and Issues

Date: January 20, 2012
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Description: Youth mentoring refers to a relationship between youth—particularly those most at risk of experiencing negative outcomes in adolescence and adulthood—and the adults who support and guide them. The origin of the modern youth mentoring concept is credited to the efforts of charity groups that formed during the Progressive era of the early 1900s to provide practical assistance to poor and juvenile justice-involved youth, including help with finding employment. Issues relevant to the federal role in mentoring include the limitations of research on outcomes for mentored youth, the potential need for additional mentors, grantees' challenges in sustaining funding, and the possible discontinuation of federal mentoring funding.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Base Closures: Socioeconomic Impacts

Military Base Closures: Socioeconomic Impacts

Date: February 7, 2012
Creator: Cowan, Tadlock
Description: The most recent Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission submitted its final report to the Administration on September 8, 2005. Implementation of the BRAC round was officially completed on September 15, 2011. In the report, the commission rejected 13 of the initial Department of Defense recommendations, significantly modified the recommendations for 13 other installations, and approved 22 major closures. Early planning and decisive leadership from officials are important factors in addressing local socioeconomic impacts from base realignment and closing. Drawing from existing studies, this report assesses the potential community impacts and proposals for minimizing those impacts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Taxation of Aliens Working in the United States

Federal Taxation of Aliens Working in the United States

Date: May 18, 2012
Creator: Lunder, Erika K.
Description: This report outlines issues regarding the taxation of aliens since several pieces of current legislation have been introduced that would impose restrictions for claiming child tax credits or for claiming credits and refunds. The report includes an overview of immigration status, resident or nonresident aliens, taxation of income for various classifications, and Social Security and medicare taxes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.S. Income Distribution and Mobility: Trends and International Comparisons

The U.S. Income Distribution and Mobility: Trends and International Comparisons

Date: March 7, 2012
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: This report looks at the causes and effects of the recent United States low unemployment rate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration of Temporary Lower-Skilled Workers: Current Policy and Related Issues

Immigration of Temporary Lower-Skilled Workers: Current Policy and Related Issues

Date: March 20, 2012
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Description: U.S. employers in various industries argue that they need to hire foreign workers to perform lower-skilled jobs, while others maintain that many of these positions could be filled by U.S. workers. While the discussion of current guest worker programs in this report focuses on the H-2A and H- 2B visas, it also covers the Summer Work Travel (SWT) program, the largest of several programs under the J-1 visa for participants in work- and study-based exchange visitor programs. The SWT program is particularly relevant because participants work largely in unskilled jobs, including H-2B-like seasonal jobs at resorts and amusement parks.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Vulnerable Youth: Employment and Job Training Programs

Vulnerable Youth: Employment and Job Training Programs

Date: May 11, 2012
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Description: In an increasingly global economy, and with retirement starting for the Baby Boomer generation, Congress has indicated a strong interest in ensuring that today's young people have the educational attainment and employment experience needed to become highly skilled workers, contributing taxpayers, and successful participants in civic life. Challenges in the economy and among certain youth populations, however, have heightened concern among policymakers that some young people may not be prepared to fill these roles. This report covers this history and current status of governmental assistance in federal youth employment and job training programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department