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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Date: January 4, 2012
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Description: This report examines three labor issues and arguments related to the pending U.S.-Colombia free trade agreement (CFTA; H.R. 5724 and S. 2830): violence against trade unionists; impunity (accountability for or punishment of the perpetrators); and worker rights protections for Colombians.
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Contracting with Inverted Domestic Corporations: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

Contracting with Inverted Domestic Corporations: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

Date: November 7, 2014
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Lunder, Erika K.
Description: Recent reports that certain entities continued to receive federal government contracts after reincorporating overseas have prompted questions about current and proposed restrictions on contracting with “inverted domestic corporations.” These questions are shaped, in part, by the broader debate over whether such corporations are to be seen as “deserters,” who change their corporate citizenship to avoid paying U.S. taxes, or as evidencing systemic problems in the U.S. tax code. This report provides the answers to 14 frequently asked questions regarding the current restrictions on contracting with inverted domestic corporations, proposed amendments thereto, and the relationship between prohibitions upon contracting with inverted domestic corporations and other provisions of law that restrict dealings with “foreign” contractors.
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Older Displaced Workers in the Context of an Aging and Slowly Growing Population

Older Displaced Workers in the Context of an Aging and Slowly Growing Population

Date: January 15, 2010
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: This report analyzes the labor market experiences of those older workers who have involuntarily lost long-held jobs for reasons unrelated to their own performance (e.g., veteran factory workers at plants closed because of import competition, experienced information technology workers whose jobs have been outsourced to workers in other countries, and mid-level managers in positions eliminated through corporate restructuring). It examines current policies targeted at the reemployment of older displaced workers which, if successful, might lengthen their stay in the workforce.
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Immigration of Foreign Workers: Labor Market Tests and Protections

Immigration of Foreign Workers: Labor Market Tests and Protections

Date: August 27, 2010
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report discusses §1611, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, which requires companies receiving Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) funding to comply with the more rigorous labor market rules of H-1B dependent companies if they hire foreign workers on H-1B visas.
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Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Date: January 13, 2011
Creator: Dilger, Robert J. & Gonzales, Oscar R.
Description: This report addresses a core issue facing Congress during the 112th Congress: what, if any, additional action should the federal government take to enhance small business access to capital? After briefly discussing the role of small business in job creation and retention, this report provides an assessment of the supply and demand for small business loans. It also examines selected laws enacted during the 110th and 111th Congresses that were designed to enhance small business access to capital by increasing the supply of small business loans and/or the demand for small business loans. This report also includes empirical evidence concerning small business lending and borrowing, including the number and amount of small business loans guaranteed by the SBA.
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Unauthorized Aliens’ Access to Federal Benefits: Policy and Issues

Unauthorized Aliens’ Access to Federal Benefits: Policy and Issues

Date: September 16, 2011
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: The degree to which unauthorized resident aliens should be accorded certain rights and privileges as a result of their residence in the United States, along with the duties owed by such aliens given their presence, remains the subject of debate in Congress. Included among the specific policy areas that spark controversy are due process rights, tax liabilities, military service, eligibility for federal assistance, educational opportunities, and pathways to citizenship. This report focuses on the policy and legislative debate surrounding unauthorized aliens’ access to federal benefits.
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Fair Pay and Safe Workplaces Order: Answers to Questions

Fair Pay and Safe Workplaces Order: Answers to Questions

Date: July 15, 2015
Creator: Perry, Rodney M. & Manuel, Kate M.
Description: This report discusses Executive Order 13673, Fair Pay and Safe Workplaces, which has the stated intent of increasing “efficiency and cost savings” by ensuring that executive branch procurement contractors understand and comply with labor laws.
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The Workforce Investment Act and the One-Stop Delivery System

The Workforce Investment Act and the One-Stop Delivery System

Date: January 13, 2015
Creator: Bradley, David H.
Description: This report provides details of WIA Title I state formula program structure, services, allocation formulas, and performance accountability. In addition, it provides a program overview for national grant programs. It also provides brief overviews of Titles II and IV. Title III of WIA amends the Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933, which establishes the Employment Service (ES), to make the ES an integral part of the One-Stop system created by WIA. Because the ES is a central part of the One-Stop system, it is discussed briefly in this report even though it is authorized by separate legislation (Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933).
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Trafficking in Persons: International Dimensions and Foreign Policy Issues for Congress

Trafficking in Persons: International Dimensions and Foreign Policy Issues for Congress

Date: August 11, 2015
Creator: Rosen, Liana W.
Description: This report explores current foreign policy issues confronting U.S. efforts to combat human trafficking, the interrelationship among existing polices, and the historical and current role of Congress in such efforts. Given recent challenges in balancing budget priorities, the 112th Congress may choose to consider certain aspects of this issue further, including the effectiveness of international anti-trafficking projects, interagency coordination mechanisms, and the monitoring and enforcement of anti-trafficking regulations, particularly as they relate to the activities of U.S. government contractors and subcontractors operating overseas.
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Federal Programs Available to Unemployed Workers

Federal Programs Available to Unemployed Workers

Date: December 30, 2010
Creator: Isaacs, Katelin P.; Bradley, David H.; Mulvey, Janemarie & Topoleski, John J.
Description: There are four groups of federal programs that target unemployed workers: unemployment insurance programs, health care assistance, job search assistance, and training. This report describes these programs, how they interact with each other, and their funding.
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Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Date: September 1, 2010
Creator: Dilger, Robert J. & Gonzales, Oscar R.
Description: The Small Business Administration’s (SBA) authorization is due to expire on September 30, 2010. The SBA administers several programs to support small businesses, including loan guarantees to help small businesses gain access to capital. This report addresses a core issue facing Congress during the SBA’s reauthorization process: what, if any, additional action should the federal government take to enhance small business access to capital?
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Federal Affirmative Action Law: A Brief History

Federal Affirmative Action Law: A Brief History

Date: October 19, 2015
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: This report provides a brief history of federal affirmative action law, including legal and political developments at the federal, state, and local levels. It describes the origins, affirmative action in public education, minority contracting, and recent developments as of 2015.
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The Federal Employees' Compensation Act (FECA): Workers' Compensation for Federal Employees

The Federal Employees' Compensation Act (FECA): Workers' Compensation for Federal Employees

Date: September 16, 2015
Creator: Szymendera, Scott D.
Description: This report focuses on several key policy issues facing the Federal Employees' Compensation Act (FECA) program, including the disproportionate share of claims and program costs attributed to postal workers, the payment of FECA benefits after retirement age, the overall level of FECA disability benefits as compared with those offered by the states, and the administration of the FECA program.
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Federal Reserve: Dividends Paid to Commercial Banks

Federal Reserve: Dividends Paid to Commercial Banks

Date: October 28, 2015
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Murphy, M. M.
Description: This report briefly provides background on dividends paid to banks by the Federal Reserve (Fed), which would be reduced in the Senate-passed highway trust fund bill (H.R. 22) as a budgetary offset.
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Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Date: November 25, 2015
Creator: Dilger, Robert J.
Description: This report discusses the role of small business in job creation and retention, then provides an assessment of the supply and demand for small business loans and recently enacted laws designed to enhance small business access to capital. It also examines recent actions concerning the SBA's budget and concludes with a brief overview of legislative options available to address small business access to capital issues during the 114th Congress.
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The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act and the One-Stop Delivery System

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act and the One-Stop Delivery System

Date: October 27, 2015
Creator: Bradley, David H.
Description: This report provides details of WIOA Title I state formula program structure, services, allotment formulas, and performance accountability, a program overview for national grant programs, and a brief overview of the Employment Service (ES), which is authorized by separate legislation but is an integral part of the One-Stop system created by WIOA.
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Cost-of-Living Adjustments for Federal Civil Service Annuities

Cost-of-Living Adjustments for Federal Civil Service Annuities

Date: October 15, 2015
Creator: Isaacs, Katelin P.
Description: This report discusses the Cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) for the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) and the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS) and government retirees, as well as related legislation.
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Apprenticeship in the United States: Frequently Asked Questions

Apprenticeship in the United States: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: August 25, 2015
Creator: Collins, Benjamin
Description: This Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) report focuses on the Registered Apprenticeship system, through which the U.S. Department of Labor (or a recognized state apprenticeship agency) certifies a program as meeting certain federal requirements related to duration, intensity, and benefit to the apprentice. The report also discusses federal programs for which supporting apprenticeship activities is an allowable, but not required, use of funds.
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The International Labor Organization (ILO): Background in Brief

The International Labor Organization (ILO): Background in Brief

Date: August 27, 2015
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Description: This report discusses the International Labor Organization (ILO), and describes the ILO's mission, structure, and functions; presents case studies on how the ILO offers assistance to countries in promoting worker rights; and identifies issues for Congress.
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U.S. Postal Service Workforce Size and Employment Categories, FY1995-FY2014

U.S. Postal Service Workforce Size and Employment Categories, FY1995-FY2014

Date: October 21, 2015
Creator: Francis, Kathryn A.
Description: This report provides data from the past 20 years on the size and composition of the U.S. Postal Service's (USPS's) workforce. Reforms to the size and composition of the workforce have been an integral part of USPS's strategy to reduce costs and regain financial solvency, particularly between FY2007 and FY2014.
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Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress

Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: December 2, 2015
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: This report provides an overview of Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) and highlights major issues for Congress. The first section discusses how the MDBs operate, and the second section discusses the role of Congress in the MDBs.
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Vulnerable Youth: Federal Mentoring Programs and Issues

Vulnerable Youth: Federal Mentoring Programs and Issues

Date: October 22, 2015
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Description: This report begins with an overview of the purpose of mentoring, including a brief discussion on research of structured mentoring programs. The report then describes the evolution of federal policies on mentoring since the early 1990s. The report provides an overview of the federal mentoring initiatives that are currently funded.
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Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean

Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean

Date: July 29, 2015
Creator: Ribando Seelke, Clare
Description: This report describes the nature and scope of the problem of human trafficking in Latin America and the Caribbean, including U.S. efforts to deal with trafficking in persons in the region, as well as the successes and failures of some recent country and regional antitrafficking efforts. The report concludes by raising issues that may be helpful for the 113th Congress to consider as it continues to address human trafficking as part of its authorization, appropriations, and oversight activities.
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Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA)

Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA)

Date: June 23, 2015
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M.
Description: This report contains information on how to ascertain if an individual is eligible for Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) benefits.
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