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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2013
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Agricultural Guest Workers: Legislative Activity in the 113th Congress

Agricultural Guest Workers: Legislative Activity in the 113th Congress

Date: July 23, 2013
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Description: This report discusses the foreign temporary workers, also known as guest workers, that have long performed legal agricultural labor in the United States through different temporary worker programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unemployment Insurance: Programs and Benefits

Unemployment Insurance: Programs and Benefits

Date: November 20, 2013
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M. & Isaacs, Katelin P.
Description: This report describes three kinds of unemployment benefit programs: regular Unemployment Compensation (UC), Extended Benefits (EB), and Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) . The report explains their basic eligibility requirements, benefits, and financing structure.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Increase in Unemployment Since 2007: Is It Cyclical or Structural?

The Increase in Unemployment Since 2007: Is It Cyclical or Structural?

Date: January 24, 2013
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: This report assesses the relative magnitudes of cyclical and structural unemployment as they respond to different policy measures. An analysis of changes since 2007 in a variety of labor market indicators across industries and areas finds patterns that strongly suggest most of the increase in the U.S. unemployment rate is cyclical (i.e., due to depressed aggregate demand). Empirical studies suggest that, although structural unemployment has temporarily increased, it accounted for a minority of the rise in the unemployment rate in recent years.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Overview of Labor Enforcement Issues in Free Trade Agreements

Overview of Labor Enforcement Issues in Free Trade Agreements

Date: January 31, 2013
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Description: This report identifies two types of labor enforcement issues: those that relate to the free trade agreements (FTA) provisions themselves, including their definitions and their enforceability, and those that relate to executive branch responsibilities, such as resource availability and determining dispute settlement case priorities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Manufacturing in International Perspective

U.S. Manufacturing in International Perspective

Date: February 11, 2013
Creator: Levinson, Marc
Description: This report is designed to inform the debate over the health of U.S. manufacturing through a series of charts and tables that depict the position of the United States relative to other countries according to various metrics. Understanding which trends in manufacturing reflect factors that may be unique to the United States and which are related to broader changes in technology or consumer preferences may be helpful in formulating policies intended to aid firms or workers engaged in manufacturing activity. This report does not describe or discuss specific policy options.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Extending Unemployment Compensation Benefits During Recessions

Extending Unemployment Compensation Benefits During Recessions

Date: May 2, 2013
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M. & Isaacs, Katelin P.
Description: This report describes the history of temporary federal extensions to unemployment benefits from 1980 to the present. It has five sections which discuss: [1] background information on unemployment compensation (UC) benefits, [2] a definition of a recession and the process of declaring a recession, [3] a summary of the legislative history of federal extensions of unemployment benefits, [4] figures examining the statistics of recessions, and [5] previous methods for financing temporary recession programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Inflation and the Real Minimum Wage: A Fact Sheet

Inflation and the Real Minimum Wage: A Fact Sheet

Date: June 21, 2013
Creator: Elwell, Craig K.
Description: Report that discusses the federal minimum wage which is not indexed to the price level.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unemployment Insurance: Programs and Benefits

Unemployment Insurance: Programs and Benefits

Date: September 17, 2013
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M. & Isaacs, Katelin P.
Description: This report describes three kinds of unemployment benefit programs: regular Unemployment Compensation (UC), Extended Benefits (EB), and Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) . The report explains their basic eligibility requirements, benefits, and financing structure.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taxation of Unemployment Benefits

Taxation of Unemployment Benefits

Date: February 7, 2013
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M.
Description: Unemployment compensation (UC) benefits have been fully subject to the federal income tax since the passage of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-514). Individuals who receive UC benefits during a year may elect to have the federal (and in some cases state) income tax withheld from their benefits. This report provides an overview of the taxation of UC benefits and legislation related to taxing UC benefits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Labor in America: History, Policy, and Legislative Issues

Child Labor in America: History, Policy, and Legislative Issues

Date: November 18, 2013
Creator: Mayer, Gerald
Description: This report examines the historical issue of child labor in America and summarizes legislation that has been introduced from the 108th Congress to the 113th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
State and Local Restrictions on Employing Unauthorized Aliens

State and Local Restrictions on Employing Unauthorized Aliens

Date: May 16, 2013
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.
Description: This report discusses state and local restrictions upon employing unauthorized aliens in light of the May 26, 2011, decision by the Supreme Court in Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America v. Whiting.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Insourcing Functions Performed by Federal Contractors: Legal Issues

Insourcing Functions Performed by Federal Contractors: Legal Issues

Date: February 22, 2013
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Maskell, Jack
Description: "This report provides a brief overview of key legal issues related to recent insourcing initiatives. While agencies are prohibited by federal law and policy from contracting out functions that are "inherently governmental," other functions could potentially be contracted out. There has long been debate over both general government policies promoting the use of the private sector to perform "commercial functions," and whether specific functions should be performed by government personnel or contractors. However, since 2008, the insourcing initiatives of recent Congresses and the Obama Administration have generated particular controversy.5 Several lawsuits have been filed challenging agencies' determinations to insource particular functions,and broader questions have been raised as to whether agencies' implementation of insourcing runs afoul of civil service, ethics, or small business laws." (p. 1).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean

Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean

Date: July 15, 2013
Creator: Ribando Seelke, Clare
Description: Report that describes the nature and scope of the problem of trafficking in persons in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA): An Overview

The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA): An Overview

Date: May 3, 2013
Creator: Mayer, Gerald; Collins, Benjamin & Bradley, David H.
Description: This report discusses the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) that provides workers with minimum wage, overtime pay, and child labor protections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cost-of-Living Adjustments for Federal Civil Service Annuities

Cost-of-Living Adjustments for Federal Civil Service Annuities

Date: November 1, 2013
Creator: Isaacs, Katelin P.
Description: This report discusses the Cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) for the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) and the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS) are based on the rate of inflation as measured by the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W). All CSRS retirees and survivors receive COLAs. Under FERS, however, non-disabled retirees under age 62 do not receive COLAs. This report discusses cost-of-living adjustments for government retirees, as well as related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Equity: Legislative and Legal Developments

Pay Equity: Legislative and Legal Developments

Date: November 22, 2013
Creator: Collins, Benjamin & Feder, Jody
Description: This report discusses pay equity litigation, including Wal-Mart Stores v. Dukes, a case in which the Supreme Court rejected class action status for current and former female Wal-Mart employees who allege that the company has engaged in pay discrimination.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unemployment: Issues in the 113th Congress

Unemployment: Issues in the 113th Congress

Date: December 31, 2013
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Description: This report addresses three policy issues: whether to take additional measures to increase jobs (or avoid contractionary policies), what measures might be most effective, and how job creation proposals should be financed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Expediting the Return to Work: Approaches in the Unemployment Compensation Program

Expediting the Return to Work: Approaches in the Unemployment Compensation Program

Date: April 18, 2013
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M. & Smith, Ralph E.
Description: This report examines trends in the duration of unemployment benefits and then reviews a wide range of approaches for speeding the return to work. The report emphasizes measures that have recently been considered by lawmakers or have been tried on an experimental basis, particularly if evaluations of their impacts on duration of Unemployment Compensation (UC) benefit receipt are available.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The National Labor Relations Act (NLRA): Union Representation Procedures and Dispute Resolution

The National Labor Relations Act (NLRA): Union Representation Procedures and Dispute Resolution

Date: December 11, 2013
Creator: Mayer, Gerald
Description: This report begins with a brief overview of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) and describes the basic procedures that employees and employers must follow during a unionizing campaign. The report explains different types of mediation and arbitration that can be used to resolve bargaining disputes. The report describes the jurisdictional standards that an employer must meet before the NLRB will exert jurisdiction over a question of union representation (e.g., for a small business).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Workforce Investment Act and the One-Stop Delivery System

The Workforce Investment Act and the One-Stop Delivery System

Date: April 5, 2013
Creator: Bradley, David H.
Description: This report focuses on Titles I and II of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), both of which authorize programs to provide job search, education, and training activities for individuals seeking to gain or improve their employment prospects.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration-Related Worksite Enforcement: Performance Measures

Immigration-Related Worksite Enforcement: Performance Measures

Date: August 7, 2013
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Description: This report discusses the Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) responsibilities in regard to immigration-related worksite enforcement, or enforcement of the prohibitions on unauthorized employment in Section 274A of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). The INA ยง274A provisions, sometimes referred to as employer sanctions, make it unlawful for an employer to knowingly hire, recruit or refer for a fee, or continue to employ an alien who is not authorized to be so employed. This report looks at enforcement measures of this act.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Delay in Implementation of Potential Employer Penalties Under ACA

Delay in Implementation of Potential Employer Penalties Under ACA

Date: July 22, 2013
Creator: Mulvey, Janemarie; Fernandez, Bernadette & Mach, Annie L.
Description: The report provides background information regarding the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. It discusses the implications for Premium Credit Eligibility and Individual Mandate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Small Business Administration HUBZone Program

Small Business Administration HUBZone Program

Date: December 17, 2013
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Description: This report examines arguments both for and against targeting assistance to geographic areas with specified characteristics, such as low income, high poverty, or high unemployment, as opposed to providing assistance to people or businesses with specified characteristics. It then assesses the arguments both for and against the continuation of the HUBZone program
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Discrimination in Employment: A Legal Analysis of the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA)

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Discrimination in Employment: A Legal Analysis of the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA)

Date: May 3, 2013
Creator: Jody Feder & Brougher, Cynthia
Description: This report discusses issues surrounding the proposed Employment Non-Discrimination Act, which would prohibit discrimination based on an individual's actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity by public and private employers in hiring, discharge, compensation, and other terms and conditions of employment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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