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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Immigration of Foreign Workers: Labor Market Tests and Protections

Immigration of Foreign Workers: Labor Market Tests and Protections

Date: March 20, 2009
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report discusses ยง1611, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, which requires companies receiving Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) funding to comply with the more rigorous labor market rules of H-1B dependent companies if they hire foreign workers on H-1B visas.
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Unauthorized Employment in the United States: Issues, Options, and Legislation

Unauthorized Employment in the United States: Issues, Options, and Legislation

Date: March 2, 2009
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Description: As immigration reform and the illegal alien population have gained congressional and public attention in the past several years, the issue of unauthorized employment has come to the fore. It is widely accepted that most unauthorized aliens enter and remain in the United States in order to work. This report discusses options for addressing the issue of unauthorized employment in the United States.
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Electronic Employment Eligibility Verification

Electronic Employment Eligibility Verification

Date: March 13, 2009
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Description: This report discusses E-Verify, a program in which participating employers submit information about their new hires (name, date of birth, Social Security number, immigration/citizenship status, and alien number, if applicable) from the I-9 form. This information is automatically compared with information in Social Security Administration and, if necessary, DHS databases to verify identity and employment eligibility.
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Proposed Funding for Workforce Development in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009

Proposed Funding for Workforce Development in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009

Date: February 2, 2009
Creator: Bradley, David H. & Lordeman, Ann
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the key provisions related to workforce development programs administered by the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) that were included in the House and Senate versions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). It also provides estimates of state grants for programs for which these estimates are relevant and for which data needed to produce the estimates are available. The estimates are shown in appendix tables that present state-by-state allocations for adult, youth, and dislocated worker programs.
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Immigration: Policy Considerations Related to Guest Worker Programs

Immigration: Policy Considerations Related to Guest Worker Programs

Date: July 28, 2009
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Description: This report discusses guest worker programs. The United States has two main programs for temporarily importing low-skilled workers, or guest workers. Agricultural guest workers enter through the H-2A visa program, and other guest workers enter through the H-2B visa program.
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Immigration: The Effects on Low-Skilled and High-Skilled Native-Born Workers

Immigration: The Effects on Low-Skilled and High-Skilled Native-Born Workers

Date: November 5, 2009
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: The report opens with a discussion of how to analyze the impact of immigrants on the pay and job opportunities of native-born workers. It then uses this framework to examine and interpret the empirical literature on the subject. The report concludes with a discussion of policy implications.
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Immigration: The Effects on Low-Skilled and High-Skilled Native-Born Workers

Immigration: The Effects on Low-Skilled and High-Skilled Native-Born Workers

Date: January 29, 2009
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: The report opens with a discussion of how to analyze the impact of immigrants on the pay and job opportunities of native-born workers. It then uses this framework to examine and interpret the empirical literature on the subject. The report concludes with a discussion of policy implications.
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Funding for Workforce Development in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009

Funding for Workforce Development in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009

Date: February 19, 2009
Creator: Bradley, David H. & Lordeman, Ann
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the key provisions related to workforce development programs administered by the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) that were included in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) under Division A, Title VIII, Department of Labor. It also provides estimates of state grants for programs for which these estimates are relevant and for which data needed to produce the estimates are available.
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Temporary Extension of Unemployment Benefits: Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08)

Temporary Extension of Unemployment Benefits: Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08)

Date: November 17, 2009
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M. & Shelton, Alison M.
Description: This report discusses the new temporary unemployment benefit, the various tiers of the Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) program, as well as related legislation.
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Disconnected Youth: A Look at 16- to 24-Year Olds Who Are Not Working or In School

Disconnected Youth: A Look at 16- to 24-Year Olds Who Are Not Working or In School

Date: April 22, 2009
Creator: Fernandes, Adrienne L. & Gabe, Thomas
Description: A young person's detachment from both the labor market and school is an indicator that he or she may not be adequately making the transition to adulthood. Referred to as "disconnected" in the social science literature, youth who are not working or in school may have difficulty gaining the skills and knowledge needed to attain self-sufficiency. The purpose of the report is to provide context for Congress about the characteristics of youth who are not working or in school, and the circumstances in which they live.
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Unemployment and Health Insurance: Current Legislation and Issues

Unemployment and Health Insurance: Current Legislation and Issues

Date: February 17, 2009
Creator: Mulvey, Janemarie & Lyke, Bob
Description: This report discusses the link between health insurance coverage and unemployment. One consequence of unemployment is that people can also lose their health insurance. The danger of losing insurance is most obvious for coverage that is provided by employers, but people who become unemployed might no longer be able to pay individual market premiums as well. Recent estimates indicate for each percentage point increase in the unemployment rate, the number of uninsured would increase by 1.1 million.
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The Employee Free Choice Act

The Employee Free Choice Act

Date: January 26, 2009
Creator: Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Description: This report discusses legislative attempts to amend the National Labor Relations Act ("NLRA") to allow for union certification without an election, based on signed employee authorizations. The Employee Free Choice Act ("EFCA") has been introduced in the past three Congresses to allow union certification based on signed authorizations, provide a process for the bargaining of an initial agreement, and prescribe new penalties for certain unfair labor practices.
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The Labor Market during the Great Depression and the Current Recession

The Labor Market during the Great Depression and the Current Recession

Date: June 19, 2009
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: This report analyzes the labor market experiences of workers during the 1930s, which encompassed the almost five years of the Great Depression. Because it was a period very distant and different from today, considerable time is devoted to examining the employment and unemployment measures available at that time. The report ends by comparing the labor market conditions of the 1930s with those encountered by workers thus far during the recession that began in December 2007.
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Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean

Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean

Date: October 16, 2009
Creator: Ribando Seelke, Clare
Description: This report discusses the issue of trafficking in persons (TIP) in Latin America, giving background information and examining possible policy solutions.
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The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN)

The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN)

Date: July 9, 2009
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: Congress has passed legislation to facilitate the reemployment of workers who through no fault of their own are let go by their employers. Among these laws is the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act, P.L. 100-379, enacted in 1988. This report discusses the WARN Act in brief, especially as related to Congress's renewed interest in the Act due to the current financial crises and recession.
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Proposed Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Proposed Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Date: January 15, 2009
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Description: This report examines three labor issues and arguments related to the pending U.S.-Colombia free trade agreement (CFTA, H.R. 5724): violence against trade unionists; impunity (accountability for or punishment of the perpetrators); and worker rights protections for Colombians.
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The Public Safety Employer-Employee Cooperation Act

The Public Safety Employer-Employee Cooperation Act

Date: August 13, 2009
Creator: Shimabukuro, Jon O. & Mayer, Gerald
Description: This report reviews the Public Safety Employer-Employee Cooperation Act (PSEECA) and discusses the possible impact of the legislation. The report also identifies existing state laws that recognize collective bargaining rights for public safety employees, and considers the constitutional concerns raised by the measure.
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Unauthorized Aliens' Access to Federal Benefits: Policy and Issues

Unauthorized Aliens' Access to Federal Benefits: Policy and Issues

Date: August 20, 2009
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report focuses on the policy and legislative debate surrounding unauthorized aliens' access to federal benefits.
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Job Loss and Infrastructure Job Creation Spending During the Recession

Job Loss and Infrastructure Job Creation Spending During the Recession

Date: October 2, 2009
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: This report takes an in-depth look at job creation estimates, including the limitations of the methodology often used to derive them and the difficulties associated with developing job estimates for green infrastructure in particular. The report views these topics in the context of the 2007-2008 recession and its aftermath.
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Job Loss and Infrastructure Job Creation During the Recession

Job Loss and Infrastructure Job Creation During the Recession

Date: March 17, 2009
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: This report takes an in-depth look at job creation estimates, including the limitations of the methodology often used to derive them and the difficulties associated with developing job estimates for green infrastructure in particular. The report views these topics in the context of the 2007-2008 recession and its aftermath.
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Unemployment and Economic Recovery

Unemployment and Economic Recovery

Date: November 17, 2009
Creator: Cashell, Brian W.
Description: This report examines the relationship between economic growth and the unemployment rate to anticipate possible future developments.
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Leave Benefits in the United States

Leave Benefits in the United States

Date: June 5, 2009
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: This report begins by reviewing the federal statutes that pertain directly or indirectly to employer provision of leave benefits for any purpose, including a discussion of the California and New Jersey family leave insurance programs. The report than examines the incidence of different types of paid leave that U.S. employers voluntarily provide as part of an employee's total compensation (wages and benefits). The report closes with results from a federal government survey of the average direct cost to business of different types of leave.
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401(k) Plans and Retirement Savings: Issues for Congress

401(k) Plans and Retirement Savings: Issues for Congress

Date: July 14, 2009
Creator: Purcell, Patrick & Topoleski, John J.
Description: Over the past 25 years, defined contribution (DC) plans - including 401(k) plans - have become the most prevalent form of employer-sponsored retirement plan in the United States. This report describes seven major policy issues with respect to defined contribution plans: 1) access to employer-sponsored retirement plans; 2) participation in employer-sponsored plans; 3) contribution rates; 4) investment choices; 5) fee disclosure; 6) leakage from retirement savings; and 7) converting retirement savings into income.
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The Haitian Economy and the HOPE Act

The Haitian Economy and the HOPE Act

Date: January 16, 2009
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Description: This report discusses the HOPE Act as it relates to the Haitian economy and U.S. trade policy. In providing preferential access to Haitian apparel imports, the HOPE Act, as amended, gives Haitian firms a competitive (price) advantage over other foreign producers who must pay U.S. duties on apparel exports made from yarns and fabrics supplied by non-regional (e.g., Asian) producers.
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