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 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Temporary Professional, Managerial, and Skilled Foreign Workers: Legislation in the 113th Congress
This report provides legislative analyses of the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act (S. 744), as passed by the Senate, and the Supplying Knowledgebased Immigrants and Lifting Levels of STEM Visas Act (SKILLS Visa Act, H.R. 2131), as ordered reported by the House Committee on the Judiciary. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc461966/
Immigration of Temporary Lower-Skilled Workers: Current Policy and Related Issues
U.S. employers in various industries argue that they need to hire foreign workers to perform lower-skilled jobs, while others maintain that many of these positions could be filled by U.S. workers. While the discussion of current guest worker programs in this report focuses on the H-2A and H- 2B visas, it also covers the Summer Work Travel (SWT) program, the largest of several programs under the J-1 visa for participants in work- and study-based exchange visitor programs. The SWT program is particularly relevant because participants work largely in unskilled jobs, including H-2B-like seasonal jobs at resorts and amusement parks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86614/
Congressional Responses to Selected Work Stoppages in Professional Sports
This report examines congressional responses to the two most recent work stoppages in the National Football League (NFL), which occurred in 1982 and 1987. Congress is interested in the NFL's collective bargaining agreement (CBA), set to expire in 2012, because of the status of labor-management relations in professional football. The report also examines the 1994 Major League Baseball strike to examine how Congress has responded in the past to work stoppages in professional sports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98951/
The Definition of “Supervisor” Under the National Labor Relations Act
This report discusses the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) and their attempts to define the term "supervisor" in the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) so that such employees can join or form a labor union as regular employees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96802/
The Trend in Long-Term Unemployment and Characteristics of Workers Unemployed for Two Years or More
This report discusses trends in long term unemployment and characteristics such as gender, age, education, marital status of the very long-term for the unemployed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc461990/
The National Directory of New Hires
This report details the National Directory of New Hires - including its background, how data is managed in the directory, and concerns regarding the directory. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99133/
The National Directory of New Hires
This report details the National Directory of New Hires - including its background, how data is managed in the directory, and concerns regarding the directory. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284497/
Federal Labor Relations Statutes: An Overview
This report provides a brief history and overview of the aims of these statutes: the Railway Labor Act (RLA) enacted in 1926, the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), and the Federal Service Labor-Management Relations Statute (FSLMRS). It also discusses key statutory provisions for each statute. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85427/
Federal Labor Relations Statutes: An Overview
This report provides a brief history and overview of the aims of these statutes: the Railway Labor Act (RLA) enacted in 1926, the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), and the Federal Service Labor-Management Relations Statute (FSLMRS). It also discusses key provisions for each statute. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284527/
Federal Labor Relations Statutes: An Overview
This report provides a brief history and overview of the aims of these statutes: the Railway Labor Act (RLA) enacted in 1926, the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), and the Federal Service Labor-Management Relations Statute (FSLMRS). It also discusses key statutory provisions for each statute. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98019/
The National Labor Relations Act: Background and Selected Topics
Report that discusses the National Labor Relations Act, the coverage it provides, unfair labor practices that the act prohibits, pre-election communications with employees, and several legal cases regarding the Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227801/
Agricultural Guest Workers: Legislative Activity in the 113th Congress
This report discusses the foreign temporary workers, also known as guest workers, that have long performed legal agricultural labor in the United States through different temporary worker programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227891/
The Fair Labor Standards Act: Continuing Issues in the Debate
This reports details the history of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). It focuses on the administration of the act and the interpretation of provisions, which Congress has left to the discretion of the Secretary of Labor. It also considers judicial decisions, which make up a substantial part of wage/hour issues and have an impact upon enforcement of the statute. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462592/
The Buy American Act in Brief: Preferences for "Domestic" Supplies and Construction Materials in Federal Procurements
This report discusses the Buy American Act of 1933, which is the earliest and arguably the best known of various statutes regarding federal procurement of domestic products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284495/
Immigration: The Effects on Low-Skilled and High-Skilled Native-Born Workers
The report opens with a discussion of how to analyze the impact of immigrants on the pay and job opportunities of native-born workers. It then uses this framework to examine and interpret the empirical literature on the subject. The report concludes with a discussion of policy implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29492/
Immigration: The Effects on Low-Skilled and High-Skilled Native-Born Workers
The report opens with a discussion of how to analyze the impact of immigrants on the pay and job opportunities of native-born workers. It then uses this framework to examine and interpret the empirical literature on the subject. The report concludes with a discussion of policy implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29491/
Immigration: The Effects on Low-Skilled and High-Skilled Native-Born Workers
The report opens with a discussion of how to analyze the impact of immigrants on the pay and job opportunities of native-born workers. It then uses this framework to examine and interpret the empirical literature on the subject. The report concludes with a discussion of policy implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29490/
The Executive Schedule IV Pay Cap on General Schedule Compensation
This report provides information on the effect of the Executive Schedule (EX-IV) pay cap on pay for General Schedule (GS) employees; and discusses the potential implications of the pay cap on salaries, pensions, and the ability of agencies to recruit and retain staff. The report also provides some background information on the GS and Executive Schedule pay systems and the annual pay adjustment processes in those systems. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462528/
Proposed Funding for Workforce Development in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009
This report provides a brief overview of the key provisions related to workforce development programs administered by the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) that were included in the House and Senate versions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). It also provides estimates of state grants for programs for which these estimates are relevant and for which data needed to produce the estimates are available. The estimates are shown in appendix tables that present state-by-state allocations for adult, youth, and dislocated worker programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462727/
Temporary Extension of Unemployment Benefits: Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08)
In July 2008, a new temporary unemployment benefit, the Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) program, began. The most recent legislation, P.L. 111-205, extended the authorization of the EUC08 program, but did not change the structure of the program or augment benefits. This temporary unemployment insurance program provides up to 20 additional weeks of unemployment benefits to certain workers who have exhausted their rights to regular unemployment compensation (UC) benefits. This report discusses the various tiers of the EUC08 program, as well as related legislation. This report will be updated to reflect current congressional action or programmatic changes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31503/
Temporary Extension of Unemployment Benefits: Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08)
In July 2008, a new temporary unemployment benefit, the Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) program, began. The most recent legislation, P.L. 111-205, extended the authorization of the EUC08 program, but did not change the structure of the program or augment benefits. This temporary unemployment insurance program provides up to 20 additional weeks of unemployment benefits to certain workers who have exhausted their rights to regular unemployment compensation (UC) benefits. This report discusses the various tiers of the EUC08 program, as well as related legislation. This report will be updated to reflect current congressional action or programmatic changes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29756/
Unemployment Insurance: Programs and Benefits
This report describes three kinds of unemployment benefit programs: regular Unemployment Compensation (UC), Extended Benefits (EB), and Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) . The report explains their basic eligibility requirements, benefits, and financing structure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272097/
The Federal Minimum Wage: In Brief
This report discusses the minimum wage provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)that have been amended numerous times since 1938, typically for the purpose of expanding coverage or raising the wage rate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276917/
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC): A Fact Sheet
The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) is a federal government agency established in 1974 by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA; P.L. 93-406). It was created to protect the pensions of participants and beneficiaries covered by private sector, defined benefit (DB) plans. The PBGC is chaired by the Secretary of Labor, with the Secretaries of the Treasury and Commerce serving as board members. In the 112th Congress, an amendment offered by Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid to S. 1813, Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21), contains provisions that would address the use of excess defined benefit pension plan assets and the interest rates that defined benefit plans use to value plan liabilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85364/
Compensated Work Sharing Arrangements (Short-Time Compensation) as an Alternative to Layoffs
This report describes short-term compensation (STC) as a beneficial alternative to layoffs. It also describes the status of STC (or work sharing) in the U.S., particularly as it varies from state to state. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103062/
Unemployment Insurance: Programs and Benefits
This report describes three kinds of unemployment benefit programs: regular Unemployment Compensation (UC), Extended Benefits (EB), and Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) . The report explains their basic eligibility requirements, benefits, and financing structure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228022/
Inflation and the Real Minimum Wage: A Fact Sheet
Report that discusses the federal minimum wage which is not indexed to the price level. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227851/
The U.S. Income Distribution and Mobility: Trends and International Comparisons
This report looks at the causes and effects of the recent United States low unemployment rate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86603/
Antipoverty Effects of Unemployment Insurance
This report examines the antipoverty effects of unemployment insurance (UI) benefits during the past recession and the economic recovery. It includes estimates of the effects on the poverty rate for the unemployed, for those receiving UI, and for families that report at least one family member receiving UI. It also estimates how much of reported UI benefits went directly to decreasing family poverty levels. This report's analysis shows that UI benefits appear to reduce the prevalence of poverty significantly among the population that receives them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122208/
Unemployment Insurance: Programs and Benefits
This report describes three kinds of unemployment benefit programs: regular Unemployment Compensation (UC), Extended Benefits (EB), and Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) . The report explains their basic eligibility requirements, benefits, and financing structure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122298/
Unemployment: Issues in the 112th Congress
This report briefly reviews the situation in the 2012 labor market, expands on the policy steps taken to date, and analyzes policy issues that typically arise during consideration of stimulus legislation. Three policy issues are examined: whether to take additional measures to increase jobs, what measures might be most effective, and how job creation proposals should be financed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122205/
Extending Unemployment Compensation Benefits During Recessions
This report describes the history of temporary federal extensions to unemployment benefits from 1980 to the present. It has five sections which discuss: [1] background information on unemployment compensation (UC) benefits, [2] a definition of a recession and the process of declaring a recession, [3] a summary of the legislative history of federal extensions of unemployment benefits, [4] figures examining the statistics of recessions, and [5] previous methods for financing temporary recession programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122320/
Unemployment Insurance: Programs and Benefits
This report describes three kinds of unemployment benefit programs: regular Unemployment Compensation (UC), Extended Benefits (EB), and Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08). The report explains their basic eligibility requirements, benefits, and financing structure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282324/
U.S. Manufacturing in International Perspective
This report contains a series of charts and tables that depict the position of manufacturing in the United States relative to other countries according to various metrics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282349/
The Increase in Unemployment Since 2007: Is It Cyclical or Structural?
This report assesses the relative magnitudes of cyclical and structural unemployment as they respond to different policy measures. An analysis of changes since 2007 in a variety of labor market indicators across industries and areas finds patterns that strongly suggest most of the increase in the U.S. unemployment rate is cyclical (i.e., due to depressed aggregate demand). Empirical studies suggest that, although structural unemployment has temporarily increased, it accounted for a minority of the rise in the unemployment rate in recent years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463079/
Selected Characteristics of Private and Public Sector Workers
This report begins with an analysis of the trends in employment in the private and public sectors. The public sector is separated into employees of the federal government, state governments, and local governments. Next, the report analyzes selected characteristics of private and public sector workers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462358/
Extending Unemployment Compensation Benefits During Recessions
This report describes the history of temporary federal extensions to unemployment benefits from 1980 to the present. Among these extensions is the Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) program created by P.L. 110-252. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462340/
Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08): Status of Benefits Prior to Expiration
This report summarizes the structure of Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) benefits available prior to program expiration at the end of calendar year 2013 and provides the legislative history of the EUC08 program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462319/
Overview of Labor Enforcement Issues in Free Trade Agreements
This report identifies two types of labor enforcement issues: those that relate to the free trade agreements (FTA) provisions themselves, including their definitions and their enforceability, and those that relate to executive branch responsibilities, such as resource availability and determining dispute settlement case priorities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462534/
U.S. Manufacturing in International Perspective
This report is designed to inform the debate over the health of U.S. manufacturing through a series of charts and tables that depict the position of the United States relative to other countries according to various metrics. Understanding which trends in manufacturing reflect factors that may be unique to the United States and which are related to broader changes in technology or consumer preferences may be helpful in formulating policies intended to aid firms or workers engaged in manufacturing activity. This report does not describe or discuss specific policy options. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463253/
Extending Unemployment Compensation Benefits During Recessions
This report describes the history of temporary federal extensions to unemployment benefits from 1980 to the present. It has five sections which discuss: [1] background information on unemployment compensation (UC) benefits, [2] a definition of a recession and the process of declaring a recession, [3] a summary of the legislative history of federal extensions of unemployment benefits, [4] figures examining the statistics of recessions, and [5] previous methods for financing temporary recession programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462174/
Federal Taxation of Aliens Working in the United States
This report outlines issues regarding the taxation of aliens since several pieces of current legislation have been introduced that would impose restrictions for claiming child tax credits or for claiming credits and refunds. The report includes an overview of immigration status, resident or nonresident aliens, taxation of income for various classifications, and Social Security and medicare taxes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87373/
Child Labor in America: History, Policy, and Legislative Issues
This report examines the historical issue of child labor in America and summarizes legislation that has been introduced from the 108th Congress to the 113th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272084/
Immigration-Related Worksite Enforcement: Performance Measures
The Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is responsible for immigration-related worksite enforcement, or enforcement of the prohibitions on unauthorized employment in Section 274A of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). The INA §274A provisions, sometimes referred to as employer sanctions, make it unlawful for an employer to knowingly hire, recruit or refer for a fee, or continue to employ an alien who is not authorized to be so employed. This report looks at enforcement measures of this act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85373/
Insourcing Functions Performed by Federal Contractors: An Overview of the Legal Issues
Recent Congresses and the Obama Administration have taken numerous actions to promote "insourcing," or the use of government personnel to perform functions that contractors have performed on behalf of federal agencies. Members of the 112th Congress have introduced several measures which seek to ensure that certain contractors have standing to challenge insourcing determinations; would provide for additional review of insourcing determinations that affect small businesses; or could otherwise constrain insourcing initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85391/
Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act
Report that discusses the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act in brief, especially as related to Congress's renewed interest in the Act due to the current financial crises and recession. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227791/
Returning to Full Employment: What Do the Indicators Tell Us?
This report analyzes recent trends in labor market indicators during the current economic recovery, with a particular focus on the contrast between the unemployment rate and other labor market indicators. It reviews studies seeking to determine how much of the decline in the labor force participation rate is caused by the recession and how much is caused by structural factors (such as the aging of the labor force). It then considers whether the economy might reach full employment at a higher rate of unemployment compared to recent expansions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287962/
Unauthorized Aliens in the United States: Policy Discussion
This report discusses the unauthorized immigrant (illegal alien) population in the United States, which is a key and controversial immigration issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287965/
Proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Background and Issues
This report examines three labor issues and arguments related to the pending U.S.-Colombia free trade agreement (CFTA; H.R. 5724 and S. 2830): violence against trade unionists, impunity (accountability for or punishment of the perpetrators), and worker rights protections for Colombians. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98099/
Immigration-Related Worksite Enforcement: Performance Measures
Over the past few years, the media have been filled with reports about worksite enforcement operations, commonly referred to as immigration raids. These operations represent the public face of efforts by the Department of Homeland Security to curtail the employment of unauthorized immigrants. According to 2006 estimates, there are some 7.8 million unauthorized workers in the U.S. civilian workforce. Enforcement activity by the Department of Labor (DOL) is also relevant to a discussion of federal efforts to curtail unauthorized employment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83889/
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