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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Coverage of Contagious Diseases

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Coverage of Contagious Diseases

Date: October 15, 2008
Creator: Jones, Nancy Lee
Description: The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), provides broad nondiscrimination protection for individuals with disabilities in employment public services, public accommodations and services operated by private entities, transportation, and telecommunication. This report briefly discusses the Americans with Disabilities Act's statutory provisions relating to contagious diseases and relevant judicial interpretations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Labor-Management Relations and the Federal Aviation Administration: Background and Current Legislative Issues

Labor-Management Relations and the Federal Aviation Administration: Background and Current Legislative Issues

Date: January 8, 2008
Creator: Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Description: This report discusses labor-management relations at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the 2006 implementation of a new labor contract on air traffic controllers. The FAA's ability to implement the new contract with its controllers was arguably supported by a mediation procedure prescribed by federal law. This report provides background information on the mediation procedure, discusses litigation involving the FAA and two labor organizations, and examines legislative attempts to amend the existing system.
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Government Spending on Health Care Benefits and Programs: A Data Brief

Government Spending on Health Care Benefits and Programs: A Data Brief

Date: June 16, 2008
Creator: Jenson, Jennifer
Description: In a country where health spending accounts for more than 16% of gross domestic product (GDP), health care costs and spending are often described as a problem for consumers and their families; for employers that provide (or seek to provide) health benefits; and for government, which finances a mix of health care services, health research and training, and health safety programs. To describe government spending on health care benefits and programs, this report presents data from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Tax Treatment of Employer Educational Assistance for the Benefit of Employees

Tax Treatment of Employer Educational Assistance for the Benefit of Employees

Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: Educational assistance offered by employers to their employees may be exempt from federal income tax under Section 127 and Section 132 of the Internal Revenue Code. Section 127 is the employer educational assistance exclusion; Section 132, the fringe benefit exclusion for working condition benefits (e.g., job-related eduction) among other benefits. Congress established the two tax provisions well before it enacted to her higher education tax benefits meant to assist taxpayers, their spouses, and dependents -- regardless of employment status -- pay current educational expenses incurred while obtaining postsecondary degrees and undertaking lifelong learning.
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Coal Excise Tax Refunds: United States v. Clintwood Elkhorn Mining Co.

Coal Excise Tax Refunds: United States v. Clintwood Elkhorn Mining Co.

Date: May 16, 2008
Creator: Lunder, Erika
Description: In 1998, a U.S. district court held that the imposition of the coal excise tax, or black lung excise tax, on coal destined for export was unconstitutional. The process of refunding the tax has been controversial. This is because some coal producers and exporters have attempted to bypass the limitations in the Internal Revenue Code's refund scheme for bringing suit under the Export Clause in the Court of Federal Claims, seeking damages from the United States in the amount of coal excise taxes paid. The Federal Circuit Court of Appeals held the court had jurisdiction under the Tucker Act to hear the suits and allowed them as an alternative to the Code's refund process. However, in a 2008 decision, United States v. Clintwood Elkhorn Mining Co., the Supreme Court unanimously held that taxpayers must comply with the Code's administrative refund process before bringing suit. Meanwhile, H.R. 1762 and S. 373 would provide an alternative method for taxpayers to receive coal excise tax refunds.
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Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Date: September 14, 2006
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Description: The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report explains this issue in detail, as well as probable causes of said incongruity.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Base Closures: Socioeconomic Impacts

Military Base Closures: Socioeconomic Impacts

Date: September 19, 2008
Creator: Cowan, Tadlock & Webel, Baird
Description: The most recent Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission submitted its final report to the Administration on September 8, 2005. In the report, the commission rejected 13 of the initial Department of Defense recommendations, significantly modified the recommendations for 13 other installations, and approved 22 major closures. The loss of related jobs, and efforts to replace them and to implement a viable base reuse plan, can pose significant challenges for affected communities. This report explores the potential economic impact of military closures on communities, especially rural communities, which are more heavily affected by such closures and suffer from slower economic recovery times in such instances.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Employees: Pay and Pension Increases Since 1969

Federal Employees: Pay and Pension Increases Since 1969

Date: January 21, 2005
Creator: Purcell, Patrick J
Description: None
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Retirement Savings and Household Wealth: Trends from 2001 to 2004

Retirement Savings and Household Wealth: Trends from 2001 to 2004

Date: May 22, 2006
Creator: Purcell, Patrick J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Retirement Savings and Household Wealth: A Summary of Recent Data

Retirement Savings and Household Wealth: A Summary of Recent Data

Date: June 28, 2004
Creator: Purcell, Patrick J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department