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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
International Investment Agreements (IIAs): Frequently Asked Questions

International Investment Agreements (IIAs): Frequently Asked Questions

Date: May 5, 2015
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.; Akhtar, Shayerah Ilias; Murrill, Brandon J. & Shedd, Daniel T.
Description: This report answers frequently asked questions about international investment agreements (IIAs) made between the United States and other countries. Questions are categorized in three main areas: background and context; U.S. international investment agreements; and investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Current Debates over Exchange Rates: Overview and Issues for Congress

Current Debates over Exchange Rates: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: May 7, 2015
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: This report provides information on current debates over exchange rates in the global economy. It offers an overview of how exchange rates work; analyzes specific disagreements and debates; and examines existing frameworks for potentially addressing currency disputes. It also lays out some policy options available to Congress, should Members want to take action on exchange rate issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Basel Accords: The Implementation of II and the Modification of I

The Basel Accords: The Implementation of II and the Modification of I

Date: February 21, 2006
Creator: Eubanks, Walter W
Description: This report provides the basic information needed to understand the issues surrounding the proposed implementation of Basel II and the pending proposed modifications of Basel I in the United States. First, it gives a basic background on capital standards and how capital assessments were made before these accords. Second, it briefly explains how Basel I works. Third, it addresses the major problem with Basel I and the modifications being considered. Fourth, it describes the Basel II framework the United States may implement and the framework the EU is already implementing. The report concludes with a section on Congress and the Basel Accords.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the 2000 Summit in Brunei

Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the 2000 Summit in Brunei

Date: January 23, 2001
Creator: Nanto, Dick K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Date: August 18, 2011
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.; Belkin, Paul & Mix, Derek E.
Description: This report covers the sovereign debt crisis currently faced by the Eurozone which has culminated with Greece, which is at the center of the crisis, Ireland, and Portugal borrowing money from other European countries and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in order to avoid default. Topics covered include: the build-up of Greece's debt crisis, policy responses with limited success, and broader implications. Specific issues for Congress include how the U.S. economy and banking industry will be affect by these recent events.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Date: March 25, 2011
Creator: Murray, Justin & Labonte, Marc
Description: This report presents current data on estimated ownership of U.S. Treasury securities and major holders of federal debt by country. Federal debt represents the accumulated balance of borrowing by the federal government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Date: July 3, 2012
Creator: Murray, Justin & Labonte, Marc
Description: This report presents current data on estimated ownership of U.S. Treasury securities and major holders of federal debt by country. Federal debt represents the accumulated balance of borrowing by the federal government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Investment in U.S. Securities

Foreign Investment in U.S. Securities

Date: January 26, 2011
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report analyzes the extent of foreign portfolio investment in the U.S. economy and assesses the economic conditions that are attracting such investment and the impact such investments are having on the economy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Limiting Central Government Budget Deficits: International Experiences

Limiting Central Government Budget Deficits: International Experiences

Date: January 31, 2011
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report focuses on how major developed and emerging-market country governments, particularly the G-20 and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, limit their fiscal deficits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: An Overview of Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data

Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: An Overview of Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data

Date: May 6, 2005
Creator: Jackson, James K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Taxation of Overseas Investment and Income: Background and Issues in 2005

U.S. Taxation of Overseas Investment and Income: Background and Issues in 2005

Date: January 31, 2005
Creator: Brumbaugh, David L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Date: January 28, 2011
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report describes how the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) deal with the issue of currency manipulation. It also discusses apparent discrepancies in their charters and ways those differences might be addressed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Date: September 27, 2010
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report describes how the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) deal with the issue of currency manipulation. It also discusses apparent discrepancies in their charters and ways those differences might be addressed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Date: May 8, 2008
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) approach the issue of "currency manipulation" differently. The IMF Articles of Agreement prohibit countries from manipulating their currency for the purpose of gaining unfair trade advantage, but the IMF cannot force a country to change its exchange rate policies. The WTO has rules against subsidies, but these are very narrow and specific and do not seem to encompass currency manipulation. Several options might be considered for addressing this matter in the future, if policymakers deem this a wise course of action.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fair Trade in Financial Services: Legislation and the GATT

Fair Trade in Financial Services: Legislation and the GATT

Date: March 10, 1994
Creator: Jackson, William D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Daiwa Bank Problems: Background and Policy Issues

The Daiwa Bank Problems: Background and Policy Issues

Date: November 30, 1995
Creator: Nanto, Dick K; Jackson, William D & Wells, F. Jean
Description: On November 2, 1995, U.S. banking authorities ordered the Daiwa Bank to close its banking operations in the United States, and a 24-count criminal indictment was issued against it. These actions stem from the bank's admission that Toshihide Iguchi, a rogue trader at its New York branch office, had incurred $1.1 billion in losses over eleven years from trading U.S. Treasury securities and that Daiwa managers had "directed that those losses be concealed" from U.S. regulators.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Japanese and U.S. Economic Involvement in Asia and the Pacific: Comparative Data and Analysis

Japanese and U.S. Economic Involvement in Asia and the Pacific: Comparative Data and Analysis

Date: September 27, 1994
Creator: Cronin, Richard P
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Japanese Trade Balance and Exchange Rate: Seeing Through the Numbers

Japanese Trade Balance and Exchange Rate: Seeing Through the Numbers

Date: August 3, 1995
Creator: Elwell, Craig K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Russia's Paris Club Debt: U.S. Interests

Russia's Paris Club Debt: U.S. Interests

Date: July 18, 2000
Creator: Hardt, John P
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress

Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: November 8, 2013
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: This report provides an overview of Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) and highlights major issues for Congress. The first section discusses how the MDBs operate, including the history of the MDBs, their operations and organizational structure, and the effectiveness of MDB financial assistance. The second section discusses the role of Congress in the MDBs, including congressional legislation authorizing and appropriating U.S. contributions to the MDBs; congressional oversight; and U.S. commercial interests in the MDBs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Outer Continental Shelf: Oil and Gas Leasing and Revenue

Outer Continental Shelf: Oil and Gas Leasing and Revenue

Date: May 3, 2000
Creator: Kumins, Lawrence C
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Date: November 23, 2005
Creator: Murray, Justin & Labonte, Marc
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Date: May 28, 2015
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Nagel, Jared C.
Description: This report presents current data on estimated ownership of U.S. Treasury securities and major holders of federal debt by country. Federal debt represents the accumulated balance of borrowing by the federal government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trade and Current Account Balances: Statistics

Trade and Current Account Balances: Statistics

Date: April 29, 1988
Creator: Harrison, Glennon J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department