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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
China's Currency: A Summary of the Economic Issues

China's Currency: A Summary of the Economic Issues

Date: April 13, 2009
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M. & Labonte, Marc
Description: This report explores various aspects of the Chinese economy, including specific policies that some Members of Congress consider a form of currency manipulation, the U.S.-China economic relationship, and the state of the Chinese economy with respect to the current global economic crisis.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Date: March 17, 2009
Creator: Murray, Justin & Labonte, Marc
Description: This report presents current data on estimated ownership of U.S. Treasury securities and major holders of federal debt by country. Federal debt represents the accumulated balance of borrowing by the federal government. To finance federal borrowing, U.S. Treasury securities are sold to investors, directly from the Treasury or on the secondary market to individual private investors, financial institutions in the United States or overseas, and foreign, state, or local governments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Investment in U.S. Securities

Foreign Investment in U.S. Securities

Date: March 13, 2009
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report analyzes the extent of foreign portfolio investment in the U.S. economy and assesses the economic conditions that are attracting such investment and the impact such investments are having on the economy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pakistan's Capital Crisis: Implications for U.S. Policy

Pakistan's Capital Crisis: Implications for U.S. Policy

Date: March 6, 2009
Creator: Martin, Michael F. & Kronstadt, K. A.
Description: This report discusses Pakistan's capital crisis. In the autumn of 2008, Pakistan was in urgent need of an estimated $4 billion in capital to avoid defaulting on its sovereign debt. The elected government of President Asif Ali Zardari and Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani sought short-term financial assistance from a number of sources, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF), China, and an informal group of nations (including the United States) known as the "Friends of Pakistan."
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Iraq's Debt Relief: Procedure and Potential Implications for International Debt Relief

Iraq's Debt Relief: Procedure and Potential Implications for International Debt Relief

Date: January 26, 2009
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Description: This report discusses the Iraqi debt problem in three parts: (1) an overview of the Iraq debt situation following the ouster of the Saddam regime, (2) subsequent debt relief negotiations and their resolution, and (3) possible implications for future international debt relief cases.
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Sovereign Wealth Funds: Background and Policy Issues for Congress

Sovereign Wealth Funds: Background and Policy Issues for Congress

Date: January 15, 2009
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Description: This report provides background on sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) -- investment funds owned and managed by national governments -- including countries operating SWFs and the size of the SWF market. It also discusses broad areas of concern to Members of Congress and the international financial community.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Holdings of U.S. Securities: Implications for the U.S. Economy

China's Holdings of U.S. Securities: Implications for the U.S. Economy

Date: January 13, 2009
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M. & Labonte, Marc
Description: This report examines the importance to the U.S. economy of China's investment in U.S. securities, as well as U.S. concerns over the possibility that China might unload a large share of those holdings, the likelihood that this would occur, and the potential implications such action could have for the U.S. economy. The report concludes that a large sell-off of Chinese Treasury securities holdings could negatively affect the U.S. economy, at least in the short-run. As a result, such a move could diminish U.S. demand for Chinese products and thus could lower China's economic growth as well.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pakistan's Capital Crisis: Implications for U.S. Policy

Pakistan's Capital Crisis: Implications for U.S. Policy

Date: November 21, 2008
Creator: Martin, Michael F. & Kronstadt, K. Alan
Description: Pakistan - a key U.S. ally in global efforts to combat Islamist militancy - is in urgent need of an estimated $4 billion in capital to avoid defaulting on its sovereign debt. The Pakistani government is seeking short-term financial assistance from a number of sources, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF), China, and an informal group of nations (including the United States) known as the "Friends of Pakistan." The current crisis has placed some strain on U.S.-Pakistan relations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Currency: A Summary of the Economic Issues

China's Currency: A Summary of the Economic Issues

Date: November 20, 2008
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M. & Labonte, Marc
Description: Many Members of Congress charge that China's policy of accumulating foreign reserves (especially U.S. dollars) to influence the value of its currency constitutes a form of currency manipulation intended to make its exports cheaper and imports into China more expensive than they would be under free market conditions. Although China made modest reforms to its currency policy in 2005, Members contend the forms have not gone far enough and have warned of potential legislative action. This report summarizes the main findings CRS Report RL32165, China's Currency: Economic Issues and Options for U.S. Trade Policy.
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Iceland's Financial Crisis

Iceland's Financial Crisis

Date: November 20, 2008
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: On November 19, 2008, Iceland and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) finalized an agreement on a $6 billion economic stabilization program supported by a $2.1 billion loan from the IMF. Iceland's banking system had collapsed as a culmination of a series of decisions the banks made that left them highly exposed to disruptions in financial markets. The collapse of the banks also raises questions for U.S. leaders and others about supervising banks that operate across national borders, especially as it becomes increasingly difficult to distinguish the limits of domestic financial markets.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department