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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The World Bank: Changing Leadership and Issues for the United States and Congress

The World Bank: Changing Leadership and Issues for the United States and Congress

Date: January 19, 2005
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Description: The decision of World Bank President James Wolfensohn to resign in May 2005 has triggered the search for a successor. This report discusses the process for choosing a successor and the implications for U.S. policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Current Debates over Exchange Rates: Overview and Issues for Congress

Current Debates over Exchange Rates: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: September 17, 2015
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: This report provides information on current debates over exchange rates in the global economy. It offers an overview of how exchange rates work; analyzes specific disagreements and debates; and examines existing frameworks for potentially addressing currency disputes. It also lays out some policy options available to Congress, should Members want to take action on exchange rate issues.
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The Greek Debt Crisis: Overview and Implications for the United States

The Greek Debt Crisis: Overview and Implications for the United States

Date: August 19, 2015
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.; Belkin, Paul & Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the Greek dept crisis, including developments through July 2015 when questions about Greece's future in the Eurozone resurfaced and emergency negotiations resulted in a third financial assistance program for Greece. It also discusses potential implications of the crisis for the U.S. economy and U.S.-European cooperation on broader strategic and economic cooperation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Comparing Global Influence: China's and U.S. Diplomacy, Foreign Aid, Trade, and Investment in the Developing World

Comparing Global Influence: China's and U.S. Diplomacy, Foreign Aid, Trade, and Investment in the Developing World

Date: August 15, 2008
Creator: Lum, Thomas; Blanchard, Christopher M.; Cook, Nicolas & Coipuram, Thomas, Jr.
Description: This report compares the People's Republic of China's (PRC) and U.S. projections of global influence, with an emphasis on non-coercive means or "soft power," and suggests ways to think about U.S. foreign policy options in light of China's emergence.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pakistan's Capital Crisis: Implications for U.S. Policy

Pakistan's Capital Crisis: Implications for U.S. Policy

Date: March 6, 2009
Creator: Martin, Michael F. & Kronstadt, K. A.
Description: This report discusses Pakistan's capital crisis. In the autumn of 2008, Pakistan was in urgent need of an estimated $4 billion in capital to avoid defaulting on its sovereign debt. The elected government of President Asif Ali Zardari and Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani sought short-term financial assistance from a number of sources, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF), China, and an informal group of nations (including the United States) known as the "Friends of Pakistan."
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Foreign Ownership of U.S. Financial Assets: Implications of a Withdrawal

Foreign Ownership of U.S. Financial Assets: Implications of a Withdrawal

Date: July 4, 2008
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides an overview of the role foreign investment plays in the U.S. economy. It also includes an assessment of possible actions a foreign investor or a group of foreign investors might choose to take to liquidate their investments in the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sovereign Wealth Funds: Background and Policy Issues for Congress

Sovereign Wealth Funds: Background and Policy Issues for Congress

Date: January 15, 2009
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Description: This report provides background on sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) -- investment funds owned and managed by national governments -- including countries operating SWFs and the size of the SWF market. It also discusses broad areas of concern to Members of Congress and the international financial community.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Currency Devaluation

China's Currency Devaluation

Date: August 17, 2015
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report discusses China's recent changes to its method for determining the value of its currency (the renminbi). On Tuesday, August 11, 2015, the People's Bank of China (PBC), China's central bank, surprised global financial markets by lowering the reference rate of the renminbi, effectively depreciating the currency.
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Crisis in Greece: Political Implications

Crisis in Greece: Political Implications

Date: July 7, 2015
Creator: Belkin, Paul
Description: This report discusses political and economic conditions in Greece. What began as a debt crisis in Greece in late 2009 has evolved into a political crisis that many analysts believe could represent the most significant setback in over 60 years of European integration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq's Debt Relief: Procedure and Potential Implications for International Debt Relief

Iraq's Debt Relief: Procedure and Potential Implications for International Debt Relief

Date: January 26, 2009
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Description: This report discusses the Iraqi debt problem in three parts: (1) an overview of the Iraq debt situation following the ouster of the Saddam regime, (2) subsequent debt relief negotiations and their resolution, and (3) possible implications for future international debt relief cases.
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The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment

The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment

Date: April 8, 2008
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report covers the recent background of the Exon-Florio provision with special regards to issues faced in the 112th Congress. The Exon-Florio provision grants the President the authority to block proposed or pending foreign acquisitions of "persons engaged in interstate commerce in the United States" that threaten to impair the national security.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Investment in U.S. Securities

Foreign Investment in U.S. Securities

Date: July 14, 2008
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report analyzes the extent of foreign portfolio investment in the U.S. economy and assesses the economic conditions that are attracting such investment and the impact such investments are having on the economy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Dollar Crisis: Prospect and Implications

Dollar Crisis: Prospect and Implications

Date: May 6, 2008
Creator: Elwell, Craig K.
Description: This report describes the anatomy of dollar crisis, and possible reasons why a dollar crisis won't occur. The report discusses the macroeconomics effects of a dollar crisis, and the response of economic policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Global Financial Crisis: Increasing IMF Resources and the Role of Congress

The Global Financial Crisis: Increasing IMF Resources and the Role of Congress

Date: May 14, 2009
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report provides information on the role the IMF has played in the financial crisis, international agreement to increase the financial resources of the IMF, and the role of Congress in increasing the Fund's resources. As will be discussed in detail at the end of the report, congressional authorization, and perhaps appropriation, would be required to increase U.S. contributions to the IMF.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
France: Factors Shaping Foreign Policy, and Issues in U.S.-French Relations

France: Factors Shaping Foreign Policy, and Issues in U.S.-French Relations

Date: May 20, 2009
Creator: Belkin, Paul
Description: This report examines the key factors that shape French foreign policy. From that context, it analyzes some of the reasons for the tensions in and the accomplishments of U.S.-French relations. The report is illustrative, rather than exhaustive. Instead, the report reviews issues selected because they exemplify some of the essential features of the U.S.-French relationship.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Capital Markets and International Accounting Standards: GAAP Versus IFRS

U.S. Capital Markets and International Accounting Standards: GAAP Versus IFRS

Date: June 25, 2015
Creator: Gnanarajah, Raj
Description: This report briefly explains the different accounting standards and U.S. capital markets. It examines several International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) policy options Congress might consider and the benefits and challenges of each of those options.
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Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Date: March 17, 2009
Creator: Murray, Justin & Labonte, Marc
Description: This report presents current data on estimated ownership of U.S. Treasury securities and major holders of federal debt by country. Federal debt represents the accumulated balance of borrowing by the federal government. To finance federal borrowing, U.S. Treasury securities are sold to investors, directly from the Treasury or on the secondary market to individual private investors, financial institutions in the United States or overseas, and foreign, state, or local governments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Economic Crisis in Greece

Economic Crisis in Greece

Date: June 29, 2015
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: This report briefly discusses the current economic situation in Greece. Questions about whether Greece will stay in the Eurozone have resurfaced, as the government's stalemate with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and Eurozone creditors has reached a critical point.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Investment in U.S. Securities

Foreign Investment in U.S. Securities

Date: March 13, 2009
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report analyzes the extent of foreign portfolio investment in the U.S. economy and assesses the economic conditions that are attracting such investment and the impact such investments are having on the economy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Crisis in Greece: Political Implications

Crisis in Greece: Political Implications

Date: July 7, 2015
Creator: Belkin, Paul
Description: This report briefly discusses the political crisis resulting from what began as a debt crisis in Greece in late 2009. Many analysts believe that this political crisis could represent the most significant setback in over 60 years of European integration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Financial Regulation and Oversight: Latin American Financial Crises and Reform Lessons from Chile

Financial Regulation and Oversight: Latin American Financial Crises and Reform Lessons from Chile

Date: August 11, 2009
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Description: This report discusses Latin American financial crises and the lessons from comprehensive regulatory reform undertaken by Chile.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Sovereign Wealth Fund

China's Sovereign Wealth Fund

Date: May 5, 2008
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Description: This report discusses China's ruling executive body, the State Council, which establishes the China Investment Corporation (CIC), a sovereign wealth fund, in September 2007 to invest $200 billion of China's then $1.4 trillion in foreign exchange reserves. Congress and financial analysts raised concerns about the CIC after its creation, partly because it was a comparatively large sovereign wealth fund, partly because it was government-owned, and partly because it reported directly to the State Council.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
East Asia's Foreign Exchange Rate Policies

East Asia's Foreign Exchange Rate Policies

Date: July 16, 2009
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Description: This report examines the de facto foreign exchange rate policies adopted by the monetary authorities of East Asia. In some cases, there is a perceived discrepancy between the official (de jure) exchange rate policy and the observed de facto exchange rate policy. This report will focus primarily on the de facto exchange rate policies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Holdings of U.S. Securities: Implications for the U.S. Economy

China's Holdings of U.S. Securities: Implications for the U.S. Economy

Date: July 30, 2009
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M. & Labonte, Marc
Description: This report examines the importance to the U.S. economy of China's investment in U.S. securities, as well as U.S. concerns over the possibility that China might unload a large share of those holdings, the likelihood that this would occur, and the potential implications such action could have for the U.S. economy. The report concludes that a large sell-off of Chinese Treasury securities holdings could negatively affect the U.S. economy, at least in the short-run.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department