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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Date: March 17, 2009
Creator: Murray, Justin & Labonte, Marc
Description: This report presents current data on estimated ownership of U.S. Treasury securities and major holders of federal debt by country. Federal debt represents the accumulated balance of borrowing by the federal government. To finance federal borrowing, U.S. Treasury securities are sold to investors, directly from the Treasury or on the secondary market to individual private investors, financial institutions in the United States or overseas, and foreign, state, or local governments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the 2000 Summit in Brunei

Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the 2000 Summit in Brunei

Date: January 23, 2001
Creator: Nanto, Dick K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Reserve's Arrangement for Emergency Loans to Japanese Banks

The Federal Reserve's Arrangement for Emergency Loans to Japanese Banks

Date: December 27, 1995
Creator: Nanto, Dick K
Description: None
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China and the CNOOC Bid for Unocal: Issues for Congress

China and the CNOOC Bid for Unocal: Issues for Congress

Date: September 15, 2005
Creator: Nanto, Dick K & Kumins, Lawrence C
Description: The bid by the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) to acquire the U.S. energy company Unocal for $18.5 billion raised many issues with U.S. policymakers. This report provides an overview and analysis of the CNOOC bid, U.S. interests, implications for U.S. energy security, U.S. investment in the PRC’s (People’s Republic of China’s) oil industry, the process for reviewing the security and other implications of foreign investment in the United States, Congressional activity, and a listing of unresolved issues.
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The Global Financial Crisis: Analysis and Policy Implications

The Global Financial Crisis: Analysis and Policy Implications

Date: July 2, 2009
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.
Description: The world has entered a global recession that is causing widespread business contraction, increases in unemployment, and shrinking government revenues. The process for coping with the crisis by countries across the globe has been manifest in four basic phases. The first has been intervention to contain the contagion and restore confidence in the system. The second has been coping with the secondary effects of the crisis, particularly the global recession and flight of capital from countries in emerging markets and elsewhere that have been affected by the crisis. The third phase of this process is to make changes in the financial system to reduce risk and prevent future crises. The fourth phase of the process is dealing with political, social, and security effects of the financial turmoil. The role for Congress in this financial crisis is multifaceted. This report describes this role, as well as the financial crisis in general, in detail.
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China and the CNOOC Bid for Unocal: Issues for Congress

China and the CNOOC Bid for Unocal: Issues for Congress

Date: February 27, 2006
Creator: Nanto, Dick K; Jackson, James K; Morrison, Wayne M & Kumins, Lawrence C
Description: The bid by the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) to acquire the U.S. energy company Unocal for $18.5 billion raised many issues with U.S. policymakers. This report provides an overview and analysis of the CNOOC bid, U.S. interests, implications for U.S. energy security, U.S. investment in the PRC’s (People’s Republic of China’s) oil industry, the process for reviewing the security and other implications of foreign investment in the United States, Congressional activity, and a listing of unresolved issues.
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The Daiwa Bank Problems: Background and Policy Issues

The Daiwa Bank Problems: Background and Policy Issues

Date: November 30, 1995
Creator: Nanto, Dick K; Jackson, William D & Wells, F. Jean
Description: On November 2, 1995, U.S. banking authorities ordered the Daiwa Bank to close its banking operations in the United States, and a 24-count criminal indictment was issued against it. These actions stem from the bank's admission that Toshihide Iguchi, a rogue trader at its New York branch office, had incurred $1.1 billion in losses over eleven years from trading U.S. Treasury securities and that Daiwa managers had "directed that those losses be concealed" from U.S. regulators.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Current Debates over Exchange Rates: Overview and Issues for Congress

Current Debates over Exchange Rates: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: May 7, 2015
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: This report provides information on current debates over exchange rates in the global economy. It offers an overview of how exchange rates work; analyzes specific disagreements and debates; and examines existing frameworks for potentially addressing currency disputes. It also lays out some policy options available to Congress, should Members want to take action on exchange rate issues.
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Current Debates over Exchange Rates: Overview and Issues for Congress

Current Debates over Exchange Rates: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: September 17, 2015
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: This report provides information on current debates over exchange rates in the global economy. It offers an overview of how exchange rates work; analyzes specific disagreements and debates; and examines existing frameworks for potentially addressing currency disputes. It also lays out some policy options available to Congress, should Members want to take action on exchange rate issues.
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Economic Crisis in Greece

Economic Crisis in Greece

Date: June 29, 2015
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: This report briefly discusses the current economic situation in Greece. Questions about whether Greece will stay in the Eurozone have resurfaced, as the government's stalemate with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and Eurozone creditors has reached a critical point.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress

Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: April 9, 2010
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: This report provides an overview of the Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) and highlights major current issues for Congress. The first section discusses the history of the MDBs, their operations, major donor contributions, their organization, and debates about the effectiveness of MDB financial assistance. The second section discusses issues of particular interest to Congress, including congressional legislation authorizing and appropriating U.S. contributions to the MDBs, congressional oversight of the MDBs, and U.S. commercial interests in the MDBs. It also discusses recent proposals for increasing the voting power of emerging-markets at the World Bank.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress

Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: November 8, 2013
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: This report provides an overview of Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) and highlights major issues for Congress. The first section discusses how the MDBs operate, including the history of the MDBs, their operations and organizational structure, and the effectiveness of MDB financial assistance. The second section discusses the role of Congress in the MDBs, including congressional legislation authorizing and appropriating U.S. contributions to the MDBs; congressional oversight; and U.S. commercial interests in the MDBs.
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Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress

Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: April 18, 2012
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: This report provides an overview of the MDBs and highlights major issues for Congress. The first section discusses how the MDBs operate, including the history of the MDBs, their operations and organizational structure, and the effectiveness of MDB financial assistance. The second section discusses the role of Congress in the MDBs, including congressional legislation authorizing and appropriating U.S. contributions to the MDBs; congressional oversight; and U.S. commercial interests in the MDBs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress

Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: March 7, 2011
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) are international institutions that provide financial assistance, typically in the form of loans and grants, to developing countries in order to promote economic and social development. This report provides an overview of the MDBs and highlights major current issues for Congress. The first section discusses the history of the MDBs, their operations, major donor contributions, and their organization. The second section discusses issues of particular interest to Congress, including the effectiveness of the MDBs; congressional legislation authorizing and appropriating U.S. contributions to the MDBs; congressional oversight of the MDBs; and U.S. commercial interests in the MDBs.
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Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2011

Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2011

Date: March 11, 2011
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration has requested and how much Congress has appropriated for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs) since 2000. It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations.
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Egypt and the IMF: Overview and Issues for Congress

Egypt and the IMF: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: April 29, 2013
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M. & Sharp, Jeremy M.
Description: This report provides an overview of the economic situation in post-revolution Egypt and negotiations between Egypt and the IMF. It also analyzes why an IMF program is controversial in Egypt and the relationship between an IMF program for Egypt and U.S. foreign policy goals in the region. It discusses the IMF program from a congressional perspective, including how debt relief for Egypt has been tied to an IMF program and legislation that would condition U.S. bilateral economic assistance to Egypt on an IMF program.
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IMF Reforms: Issues for Congress

IMF Reforms: Issues for Congress

Date: March 11, 2014
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M. & Weiss, Martin A.
Description: This report provides information about the reforms made by the Board of Governors of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in December 2010, Congress's role in the reform process, and how the reforms could affect U.S. interests at the IMF.
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IMF Reforms: Issues for Congress

IMF Reforms: Issues for Congress

Date: April 9, 2015
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M. & Weiss, Martin A.
Description: This report provides information about the reforms made by the Board of Governors of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in December 2010, Congress's role in the reform process, and how the reforms could affect U.S. interests at the IMF.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
IMF Reforms: Issues for Congress

IMF Reforms: Issues for Congress

Date: December 12, 2012
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M. & Weiss, Martin A.
Description: Report that provides information about the reforms made by the Board of Governors of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in December 2010, Congress's role in the reform process, and how the reforms could affect U.S. interests at the IMF.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Trade and Finance: Key Policy Issues for the 113th Congress, Second Session

International Trade and Finance: Key Policy Issues for the 113th Congress, Second Session

Date: February 1, 2013
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M. & Weiss, Martin A.
Description: This report provides information about the reforms, Congress's role in the reform process, and how the reforms could affect U.S. interests at the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: How the United States Makes and Implements Policy

Multilateral Development Banks: How the United States Makes and Implements Policy

Date: March 7, 2013
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M. & Weiss, Martin A.
Description: This report analyzes how the United States makes policy towards the multilateral development banks (MDBs) and identifies ways by which Congress can shape U.S. policy and influence the activities of the banks themselves.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Greek Debt Crisis: Overview and Implications for the United States

The Greek Debt Crisis: Overview and Implications for the United States

Date: August 19, 2015
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.; Belkin, Paul & Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the Greek dept crisis, including developments through July 2015 when questions about Greece's future in the Eurozone resurfaced and emergency negotiations resulted in a third financial assistance program for Greece. It also discusses potential implications of the crisis for the U.S. economy and U.S.-European cooperation on broader strategic and economic cooperation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Date: May 14, 2010
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.; Belkin, Paul & Mix, Derek E.
Description: Greece is currently facing such a sovereign debt crisis. On May 2, 2010, the Eurozone members and International Monetary Fund (IMF) endorsed a historic €110 billion (about $145 billion) financial package for Greece in an effort to avoid a Greek default and to stem contagion of Greece's crisis to other European countries, particularly Portugal, Spain, Ireland, and Italy. This report provides an overview of the crisis; outlines the major causes of the crisis, focusing on both domestic and international factors; examines how Greece, the Eurozone members, and the IMF have responded to the crisis; and highlights the broader implications of Greece's debt crisis, including for the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Date: April 27, 2010
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.; Belkin, Paul & Mix, Derek E.
Description: This report provides an overview of the Greek debt crisis; outlines the major causes of the crisis, focusing on both domestic and international factors; examines how Greece, the Eurozone members, and the IMF have responded to the crisis; and highlights the broader implications of Greece's debt crisis, including for the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department