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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
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Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
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Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
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Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
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Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
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Terrorist Attack on USS Cole: Background and Issues for Congress
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Trade Promotion Authority and the U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement
This report looks at the effects of the Korean Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) on side agreements via the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103115/
U.S. Trade and Investment Relations with sub-Saharan Africa and the African Growth and Opportunity Act
Report that examines African economic trends and U.S. trade and investment flows with SSA. It discusses the provisions of AGOA and the changes that have occurred since its enactment. It concludes with a brief discussion of issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227977/
United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues
Report that tracks the process by which Congress provides the funding for U.S. assessed contributions to the regular budgets of the United Nations, its agencies, and U.N. peacekeeping operation accounts, as well as for U.S. voluntary contributions to U.N. system programs and funds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228044/
In Re Terrorist Attacks on September 11, 2001: Claims Against Saudi Defendants Under the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA)
This report summarizes the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA) and jurisdiction in cases against foreign defendants and analyzes the court of appeals decision. It also discusses legislative efforts to address these issues(S. 1535 and H.R. 3143). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272117/
U.S. International Broadcasting: Background and Issues for Reform
This report discusses the United States International Broadcasting Act of 1994 (USIB Act) and the U.S. international broadcasting services were consolidated under the BBG within the United States Information Agency (USIA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306503/
Intellectual Property Rights and International Trade
This report provides background on intellectual property rights (IPR) and discusses the role of U.S. international trade policy in enhancing IPR protection and enforcement abroad. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287919/
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than Treaties
This report briefly discusses the process used to enact U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs). In each case these agreements have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287945/
Terrorism Risk Insurance: Issue Analysis and Overview of Current Program
This report looks at the background and current Congressional status of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332918/
The Proposed Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement: Background and Key Issues
The proposed Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) is a new agreement for combating intellectual property rights (IPR) infringement. The ACTA negotiation concluded in October 2010, nearly three years after it began, and negotiating parties released a final text of the agreement in May 2011. Negotiated by the United States, Australia, Canada, the European Union and its 27 member states, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand, Singapore, and Switzerland, the ACTA is intended to build on the IPR protection and enforcement obligations set forth in the 1995 World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86556/
Dispute Settlement in the U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA)
A look at the U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA), including its background and, most specifically, steps taken when disputes occur. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86580/
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties. The congressional-executive agreement has been the vehicle for implementing Congress's long-standing policy of seeking trade benefits for the United States through reciprocal trade negotiations. This report discusses this topic in brief. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83844/
Palestinian Initiatives for 2011 at the United Nations
This report provides information on the United Nations (U.N.) framework and process for options being discussed regarding possible Palestinian statehood, including overviews of the following topics: the U.N. and recognition of states, observer status in the United Nations, and the criteria and process for United Nations membership. The report also analyzes the prospects for avoiding U.N. action by reaching an Israel-PLO agreement to resume negotiations, as well as the possibility of a compromise U.N. resolution that could set forth parameters for future Israeli-Palestinian negotiations but stop short of addressing the question of Palestinian statehood beyond expressing aspirations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93908/
Kim Jong-il's Death: Implications for North Korea's Stability and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the status of North Korea following the death of Kim Jong-il with an analysis of the stability of North Korea as well as a discussion of the implications and options for the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93918/
Arab League Boycott of Israel
This report briefly discusses the Arab League's boycott of Israeli companies and Israeli-made goods since Israel's founding in 1948, as well as U.S. efforts to end the boycott and prevent U.S. firms in participating in the boycott. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9135/
Federal Efforts to Address the Threat of Bioterrorism: Selected Issues and Options for Congress
This report focuses on four areas under congressional consideration deemed critical to the success of the biodefense enterprise: strategic planning; risk assessment; surveillance; and the development, procurement, and distribution of medical countermeasures. This report also discusses the effectiveness and sufficiency of programs implementing these aspects of the federal biodefense efforts, outside analysts' suggestions for improving the government's efforts, and current issues under congressional consideration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103084/
Foreign Aid Reform, National Strategy, and the Quadrennial Review
This report addresses foreign aid reform through early 2011. Several development proponents, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and policymakers have pressed Congress to reform U.S. foreign aid capabilities to better address 21st century development needs and national security challenges. Foreign aid reform may continue to be a concern in the 112th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103090/
Pending U.S. and EU Free Trade Agreements with South Korea: Possible Implications for Automobile and Other Manufacturing Industries
This report provides U.S. lawmakers with a comparison of the manufacturing components in the South Korea free trade agreement (KORUS) and the European Union and South Korea free trade agreement (KOREU FTA). Also included is a brief overview of the possible implications of the two pending FTAs on other selected industrial sectors affected by the FTAs: home appliances, consumer electronics, textiles and apparel, and pharmaceuticals and medical devices. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103106/
International Criminal Court and the Rome Statute: 2010 Review Conference
This report is a summary of the 2010 International Criminal Court (ICC) Review Conference in which several countries discuss political and legal ramifications of the ICC. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103148/
Terrorist Use of the Internet: Information Operations in Cyberspace
This report describes the ways that international terrorists and insurgents use the Internet, strategically and tactically, in pursuit of their political agendas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103142/
Trade Agreements: Impact on the U.S. Economy
This report examines the major features of economic models being used to estimate the effects of trade agreements. It assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the models as an aid in helping Congress evaluate the economic impact of trade agreements on the U.S. economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103162/
United Nations Reform: U.S. Policy and International Perspectives
This report focuses on U.N. reform efforts and priorities from the perspective of several key actors, including the U.S. government, the U.N. Secretary-General, selected groups of member states, and a cross-section of groups tasked with addressing U.N. reform. It also examines congressional actions related to U.N. reform, as well as future policy considerations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103204/
Timor-Leste: Political Dynamics, Development, and International Involvement
This report covers the recent background of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, since its independence from Portugal in May 2002. It discusses the many serious challenges the country faces as it seeks to establish and deepen a stable democracy and develop its economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96727/
Latin America: Terrorism Issues
U.S. attention to terrorism in Latin America intensified in the aftermath of the September 2001 terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, with an increase in bilateral and regional cooperation. Over the past several years, policymakers have been concerned about Iran's increasing activities in Latin America, particularly its relations with Venezuela, although there has been disagreement over the extent and significance of Iran's relations with the region. In the 112th Congress, several initiatives have been introduced related to terrorism issues in the Western Hemisphere regarding Mexico, Venezuela, and the activities of Iran and Hezbollah, and several oversight hearings have been held. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87366/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement
This report discusses the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), a free trade agreement that includes nations on both sides of the Pacific. Original members of the TPP were Brunei, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore. The United States, Australia, Peru, and Vietnam have committed themselves to joining and expanding this group. This report discusses similar trade partnerships, the importance of Asia to U.S. trade and security interests, and U.S. participation in the TPP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29567/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement
This report discusses the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), a free trade agreement that includes nations on both sides of the Pacific. Original members of the TPP were Brunei, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore. The United States, Australia, Peru, and Vietnam have committed themselves to joining and expanding this group. This report discusses similar trade partnerships, the importance of Asia to U.S. trade and security interests, and U.S. participation in the TPP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93815/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement
This report discusses the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), a free trade agreement that includes nations on both sides of the Pacific. Original members of the TPP were Brunei, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore. The United States, Australia, Peru, and Vietnam have committed themselves to joining and expanding this group. This report discusses similar trade partnerships, the importance of Asia to U.S. trade and security interests, and U.S. participation in the TPP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31462/
Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Countries: Comparative Trade and Economic Analysis
The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a proposed regional free trade agreement (FTA) currently under negotiation between Australia, Brunei, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the United States, and Vietnam. The negotiating partners have expressed an interest in allowing this proposed “living agreement” to cover new trade topics and to include new members that are willing to adopt the proposed agreement's high standards. This report provides a comparative economic analysis of the TPP countries and their economic relations with the United States. It suggests that the TPP negotiating partners encompass great diversity in population, economic development, and trade and investment patterns with the United States. This economic diversity and inclusion of fast-growing emerging markets presents both opportunities and challenges for the United States in achieving a comprehensive and high standard regional FTA among TPP countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87208/
Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Countries: Comparative Trade and Economic Analysis
The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a proposed regional free trade agreement (FTA) currently under negotiation between Australia, Brunei, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the United States, and Vietnam. Congressional involvement includes consultations with U.S. negotiators on and oversight of the details of the negotiations, and eventual consideration of legislation to implement the final trade agreement. This report provides a comparative economic analysis of the TPP countries and their economic relations with the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87209/
Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview
This report describes the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU), which is the World Trade Organization's (WTO) means of resolving disputes arising under WTO agreements. The report includes criticisms of certain flaws in the DSU, as well as WTO Members' suggestions for improvement. The report also describes the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR), which represents the United States in WTO disputes, and discusses pieces of legislation that dictate procedures for specifically the United States in instances of WTO disputes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122332/
Border Security: Fences Along the U.S. International Border
This report outlines the issues involved with the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS’s) completion of a three-tiered, 14-mile fence, along the border near San Diego, California. The state of California has delayed completion of the fence due primarily to legal and policy conflicts with its federally-approved, state-run Coastal Management Program. Current authorization for the fence only allows the waiver of the Endangered Species Act and the National Environmental Policy Act. During the 108th Congress, a variety of proposals were introduced that would have allowed the department to waive a number of other environmental, conservation, and cultural laws and requirements to varying degrees. Similar proposals are likely to surface again during the 109th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6276/
Border Security: Fences Along the U.S. International Border
This report outlines the issues involved with the Department of Homeland Security's (DHS's) completion of a three-tiered, 14-mile fence, along the border near San Diego, California. The state of California delayed completion of the fence due primarily to legal and policy conflicts with its federally-approved, state-run Coastal Management Program. Former authorization for the fence only allowed the waiver of the Endangered Species Act and the National Environmental Policy Act. During the 109th Congress, provisions to facilitate the completion of the border fence were included in the REAL ID Act of 2005 (H.R. 41 8), which was subsequently added to H.R. 1268, the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act, and signed into law on May 1 1,2005 (P.L. 109-13). The border fence provisions allow the Secretary of DHS to waive all legal requirements determined necessary to ensure expeditious construction of authorized barriers and roads. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8070/
Border Security: Key Agencies and Their Missions
After the massive reorganization of federal agencies precipitated by the creation of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), there are now four main federal agencies charged with securing the United States’ borders: the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP), which patrols the border and conducts immigrations, customs, and agricultural inspections at ports of entry; the Bureau of Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE), which investigates immigrations and customs violations in the interior of the country; the United States Coast Guard, which provides maritime and port security; and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), which is responsible for securing the nation’s land, rail, and air transportation networks. This report is meant to serve as a primer on the key federal agencies charged with border security; as such it will briefly describe each agency’s role in securing our nation’s borders. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10146/
Bosnia: Civil Implementation of the Peace Agreement
Since Dayton Peace Accords, the civilian side of peace implementation has been challenged by the scope of the tasks, and by the lack of commitment demonstrated by the Bosnian parties to various aspects of the peace agreement. In addition, issues such as International Framework for peace implementation, formation of governmental institution, election, civil police task force and displaced persons are discussed in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs607/
Biosafety Protocol for Genetically Modified Organisms: Overview
This report presents a background on Biosafety Protocol for genetically modified organisms and an overview of Biosafety Protocol negotiations, key provisions and related issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1886/
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Free Trade, and the 2003 Summit in Bangkok, Thailand
On October 20-21, 2003, the Eleventh APEC Leader’s Meeting (informal summit) was held in Bangkok, Thailand. The theme for APEC 2003 is “A World of Differences: Partnership for the Future” which is intended to bring together the best potential of all APEC economies to confront the challenges of the future, particularly in achieving the APEC goal of free and open trade and investment for developed APEC economies. For the United States, APEC raises fundamental questions that are of special interest to Congress. One is whether consensus can be achieved on the APEC vision of free trade and investment in the Asia Pacific or whether future trade liberalization will be confined primarily to bilateral free-trade agreements or multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5577/
Biosafety Protocol for Genetically Modified Organisms: Overview
The Biosafety Protocol to the 1992 Convention on biological Diversity, adopted in early 2000, addresses the safe handling, transfer, and trade of biological organisms. The Protocol sets forth procedures and rules concerning trade in biological products, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) that have engendered controversy, especially when they are used as agricultural crops. These rules are of key importance to U.S. economic interests in agriculture as well as those dealing in other genetically modified organisms. This report provides a brief summary of the key provisions of the Protocol and the major issues associated with them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1271/
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Free Trade, and the 2001 Summit in Shanghai
On October 20-21, 2001, the Ninth APEC Leaders’ Meeting (summit) was hosted by China in Shanghai. The office theme for APEC 2001 was “Meeting New Challenges in the New Century: Achieving Common Prosperity through Participation and Cooperation” with the sub-themes of: (1) sharing the benefits of globalization and the new economy, (2) advancing trade and investment, and (3) promoting sustained economic growth. For the United States, APEC raises fundamental questions that are of special interest to Congress. One is whether consensus can be achieved on the APEC vision of free trade and investment in the Asia Pacific or whether future trade liberalization will be confined primarily to bilateral free-trade agreements or multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2015/
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Free Trade, and the 2002 Summit in Mexico
On October 26-27, 2002, the Tenth APEC Leaders’ Meeting (summit) was hosted by Mexico in Las Cabos, Mexico. The official theme for APEC 2002 is to expand the benefits of cooperation for economic growth and development and enable the APEC vision to be implemented. For the United States, APEC raises fundamental questions that are of special interest to Congress. One is whether consensus can be achieved on the APEC vision of free trade and investment in the Asia Pacific or whether future trade liberalization will be confined primarily to bilateral free-trade agreements or multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3541/
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Free Trade, and the 2002 Summit in Mexico
On October 26-27, 2002, the Tenth APEC Leaders’ Meeting (summit) was hosted by Mexico in Las Cabos, Mexico. The official theme for APEC 2002 is to expand the benefits of cooperation for economic growth and development and enable the APEC vision to be implemented. For the United States, APEC raises fundamental questions that are of special interest to Congress. One is whether consensus can be achieved on the APEC vision of free trade and investment in the Asia Pacific or whether future trade liberalization will be confined primarily to bilateral free-trade agreements or multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3539/
Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity
The entry into force, on January 1, 1994, of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has eliminated the advantage that the beneficiaries of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA) and related provisions of the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) had enjoyed in trade with the United States relative to Mexico, and gave Mexico an increasingly significant competitive edge over the CBERA countries. The scheduled further implementation of the NAFTA would have resulted in a substantial advantage to Mexico over the CBERA countries and vitiate in part the purpose of the CBERA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1998/
Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity
The entry into force, on January 1, 1994, of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has eliminated the advantage that the beneficiaries of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA) and related provisions of the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) had enjoyed in trade with the United States relative to Mexico, and gave Mexico an increasingly significant competitive edge over the CBERA countries. The scheduled further implementation of the NAFTA would have resulted in a substantial advantage to Mexico over the CBERA countries and vitiate in part the purpose of the CBERA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1331/
Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity
The entry into force, on January 1, 1994, of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has eliminated the advantage that the beneficiaries of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA) and related provisions of the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) had enjoyed in trade with the United States relative to Mexico, and gave Mexico an increasingly significant competitive edge over the CBERA countries. The scheduled further implementation of the NAFTA would have resulted in a substantial advantage to Mexico over the CBERA countries and vitiate in part the purpose of the CBERA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3525/
Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity
The entry into force, on January 1, 1994, of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has eliminated the advantage that the beneficiaries of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA) and related provisions of the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) had enjoyed in trade with the United States relative to Mexico, and gave Mexico an increasingly significant competitive edge over the CBERA countries. The scheduled further implementation of the NAFTA would have resulted in a substantial advantage to Mexico over the CBERA countries and vitiate in part the purpose of the CBERA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3522/
Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity
The entry into force, on January 1, 1994, of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has eliminated the advantage that the beneficiaries of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA) and related provisions of the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) had enjoyed in trade with the United States relative to Mexico, and gave Mexico an increasingly significant competitive edge over the CBERA countries. The scheduled further implementation of the NAFTA would have resulted in a substantial advantage to Mexico over the CBERA countries and vitiate in part the purpose of the CBERA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3524/