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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
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Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
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Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
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World Health Organization: A Fact Sheet
The World Health Organization (WHO), established in 1948, is the U.N. System's authority on international public health issues. It assists governments in improving national health services and in establishing worldwide standards for foods, chemicals, and biological and pharmaceutical products. WHO concentrates on preventive rather than curative programs, including efforts to eradicate endemic and other widespread diseases, stabilize population growth, improve nutrition, sanitation, and maternal and child care. WHO works through contracts with other agencies and private voluntary organizations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs339/
The PLO and Its Factions
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Industry Trade Effects Related to NAFTA
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United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues
Report that tracks the process by which Congress provides the funding for U.S. assessed contributions to the regular budgets of the United Nations, its agencies, and U.N. peacekeeping operation accounts, as well as for U.S. voluntary contributions to U.N. system programs and funds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228044/
U.S. Trade and Investment Relations with sub-Saharan Africa and the African Growth and Opportunity Act
Report that examines African economic trends and U.S. trade and investment flows with SSA. It discusses the provisions of AGOA and the changes that have occurred since its enactment. It concludes with a brief discussion of issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227977/
The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Meetings in Vladivostok, Russia: A Preview
Russia will host the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation's (APEC) week-long series of senior-level meetings in Vladivostok on September 2-9, 2012. The main event for the week will be the 20th APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting to be held September 8-9, 2012. This report looks at the main points of this meeting as they relate to the U.S. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122240/
Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2010
This report lists hundreds of instances in which the United States has used its armed forces abroad in situations of military conflict or potential conflict or for other than normal peacetime purposes. The listing contains references, especially from 1980 forward, to continuing military deployments such as U.S. military participation in multinational operations associated with NATO or the United Nations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103144/
Trade Promotion Authority and the U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement
This report looks at the effects of the Korean Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) on side agreements via the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103115/
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than Treaties
This report briefly discusses the process used to enact U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs). In each case these agreements have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287945/
U.S. International Broadcasting: Background and Issues for Reform
This report discusses the United States International Broadcasting Act of 1994 (USIB Act) and the U.S. international broadcasting services were consolidated under the BBG within the United States Information Agency (USIA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306503/
Kim Jong-il's Death: Implications for North Korea's Stability and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the status of North Korea following the death of Kim Jong-il with an analysis of the stability of North Korea as well as a discussion of the implications and options for the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93918/
U. N. Development Program: A Fact Sheet
The U.N. Development Program (UNDP) coordinates and provides funding for most U.N. development assistance programs. In FY1994, the U.S. contribution of $116 million made the United States the largest donor, comprising about 12 percent of the agency's budget. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26101/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2010 Budget and Appropriations
The annual State, Foreign Operations, and Related Agencies appropriations bill is the primary legislative vehicle through which Congress reviews the U.S. international affairs budget and influences executive branch foreign policy making in general. On May 7, 2009, President Obama submitted a budget proposal for FY2010 that requests $53.9 billion for the international affairs budget. This report analyzes the FY2010 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action for FY2010. To date, this includes the introduction and committee approval of H.R. 3081, the House State-Foreign Operations Appropriations bill for FY2010. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26181/
Terrorism Risk Insurance: Issue Analysis and Overview of Current Program
This report looks at the background and current Congressional status of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332918/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2011 Budget and Appropriations
This report analyzes the FY2011 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action related to FY2011 State-Foreign Operations legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33017/
U.S. Trade and Investment Relations with sub-Saharan Africa and the African Growth and Opportunity Act
This report looks at the pros and cons of recent legislation brought up in the 112th Congress, including the renewal of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) and how it will affect trade between the U.S. and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96743/
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
This report briefly discusses the process used to enact U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs). In each case these agreements have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96665/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2011 Budget and Appropriations
This report analyzes the FY2011 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action related to FY2011 State-Foreign Operations legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29590/
Agriculture in the WTO Bali Ministerial Agreement
At the World Trade Organization's (WTO's) Ninth Ministerial Conference in Bali, Indonesia, December 3-7, 2013, ministers adopted the so-called Bali Package — a series of decisions aimed at streamlining trade (referred to as trade facilitation), allowing developing countries more options for providing food security, boosting least-developed-country trade, and helping development more generally. This report focuses on aspects of the Bali Package that deal with and are specific to agriculture. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463235/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2011 Budget and Appropriations
The annual State, Foreign Operations, and Related Agencies appropriations bill has been the primary legislative vehicle through which Congress reviews the U.S. international affairs budget and influences executive branch foreign policy making in recent years, as Congress has not regularly considered these issues through a complete authorization process for State Department diplomatic activities since 2003 and for foreign aid programs since 1985. This report analyzes the FY2011 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action related to FY2011 State-Foreign Operations legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491248/
Trade Promotion Authority and the Korea Free Trade Agreement
This report looks at the effects of the Korean Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) on side agreements via the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc490857/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2011 Budget and Appropriations
This report analyzes the FY2011 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action related to FY2011 State-Foreign Operations legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491493/
Piracy: A Legal Definition
This report first examines the historical development of the offense of piracy, as defined by Congress and codified in the United States Code. The focus then turns to how contemporary international agreements define piracy. Finally, the report highlights developments in two trials involving charges of piracy in the federal district court in Norfolk, VA, United States v. Said and United States v. Hasan, specifically focusing on how the courts interpreted the definition of piracy under 18 U.S.C. § 1651. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491492/
Pending U.S. and EU Free Trade Agreements with South Korea: Possible Implications for Automobile and Other Manufacturing Industries
This report provides U.S. lawmakers with a comparison of the manufacturing components in the South Korea free trade agreement (KORUS) and the European Union and South Korea free trade agreement (KOREU FTA). Also included is a brief overview of the possible implications of the two pending FTAs on other selected industrial sectors affected by the FTAs: home appliances, consumer electronics, textiles and apparel, and pharmaceuticals and medical devices. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491026/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2011 Budget and Appropriations
This report analyzes the FY2011 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action related to FY2011 State-Foreign Operations legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc490912/
The Islamic State in Syria and Iraq: A Possible Threat to Jordan?
This report briefly examines the extent to which the Islamic State (IS, formerly referred to as ISIS or ISIL) may pose a threat to Jordan, an "important U.S. partner." The report discusses Jordanian actions to address threats, and U.S. policy implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463012/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2009 Appropriations
This report analyzes the FY2009 request and recent-year funding trends; it will track major foreign policy issues Congress may consider and will highlight congressional action throughout the appropriations process including the congressional report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462532/
Department of State and Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Fact Sheet on Legislation, FY1995-FY2015
This report discusses the foreign affairs appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc461996/
The Pacific Alliance: A Trade Integration Initiative in Latin America
The Pacific Alliance is a regional integration initiative formed by Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru on April 28, 2011. Its main purpose is for members to form a regional trading bloc and forge stronger economic ties with the Asia-Pacific region. This report provides an overview of the structure of the Pacific Alliance, events leading up to its creation, and the economic significance of the Member countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462830/
In Re Terrorist Attacks on September 11, 2001: Claims Against Saudi Defendants Under the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA)
This report summarizes the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA) and jurisdiction in cases against foreign defendants and analyzes the court of appeals decision. It also discusses legislative efforts to address these issues(S. 1535 and H.R. 3143). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501938/
Intellectual Property Rights and International Trade
This report provides background on intellectual property rights (IPR) and discusses the role of U.S. international trade policy in enhancing IPR protection and enforcement abroad. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287919/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2010 Budget and Appropriations
This report analyzes the FY2010 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action for FY2010, which includes the July 9 House approval of H.R. 3081, the State-Foreign Operations Appropriations bill for FY2010, July 9 Senate Appropriations Committee passage of its bill (S. 1434), and passage of H.R. 3288, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, signed into law Dec. 16, 2009 (P.L. 111-117). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505459/
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
This report provides an overview of North American trade liberalization before NAFTA, an overview of NAFTA provisions, the economic effects of NAFTA, and policy considerations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505413/
Department of State and Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Fact Sheet on Legislation, FY1995-FY2015
This report discusses the foreign affairs appropriations passed within the last 21 years; nearly all of them were passed within omnibus, consolidated, or full-year continuing resolutions, and usually after the start of the new fiscal year. Many foreign policy experts contend that stand-alone appropriation legislation would allow for a more rigorous debate on specific foreign policy activities. They also believe that the practice of delayed appropriations has constrained ongoing program operating levels and the ability to introduce or fund new programs that did not exist in the previous year's budget. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505389/
Foreign Heads of State Addressing Congress
This report discusses the historical precedent for an addresses Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu made before a joint meeting of Congress on March 3, 2015. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503473/
War Bonds in the Second World War: A Model for a New Iraq/Afghanistan War Bond?
This report discusses the high costs of fighting the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan that have rekindled congressional interest in the concept of the sale of a Treasury security to help finance these war costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505535/
Barriers Along the U.S. Borders: Key Authorities and Requirements
This report discusses key statutory authorities and requirements governing the Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) construction of barriers along the U.S. borders. It also includes appendixes listing federal laws that have been waived by DHS in furtherance of border construction projects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505491/
Europe's Preferential Trade Agreements: Status, Content, and Implications
The first section of this report describes the status and primary motivations of the EU's preferential trade agreements (PTAs) currently in place or under negotiation. The second compares the content and trade coverage of Europe's PTAs to U.S. PTAs. A third section assesses the implications of the EU's PTA program for the multilateral trading system and U.S. trade policy. A concluding section evaluates future directions for Europe's PTA policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503601/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2010 Budget and Appropriations
This report analyzes the FY2010 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action for FY2010, which includes the July 9 House approval of H.R. 3081, the State-Foreign Operations Appropriations bill for FY2010, July 9 Senate Appropriations Committee passage of its bill (S. 1434), and passage of H.R. 3288, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, signed into law Dec. 16, 2009 (P.L. 111-117). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626908/
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
This report provides an overview of North American trade liberalization before NAFTA, an overview of NAFTA provisions, the economic effects of NAFTA, and policy considerations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626952/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2010 Budget and Appropriations
This report analyzes the FY2010 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action for FY2010, which includes the July 9 House approval of H.R. 3081, the State-Foreign Operations Appropriations bill for FY2010, and July 9 Senate Appropriations Committee passage of its bill (S. 1434). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627176/
European Fighters in Syria and Iraq: Assessments, Responses, and Issues for the United States
This report discusses U.S. and European assessments of and responses to the foreign fighter phenomenon. It focuses on government policies primarily in Western European countries and analyzes EU measures to counter the foreign fighter threat given the EU's largely open internal borders and that 23 EU member states belong to the U.S. Visa Waiver Program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627136/
Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview
This report describes the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU), which is the World Trade Organization's (WTO) means of resolving disputes arising under WTO agreements. The report includes criticisms of certain flaws in the DSU, as well as WTO Members' suggestions for improvement. The report also describes the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR), which represents the United States in WTO disputes. Also discussed are pieces of legislation that dictate procedures for specifically the United States in instances of WTO disputes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33078/
Piracy: A Legal Definition
Pirate attacks in the waters off the Horn of Africa, including those on U.S.-flagged vessels, have brought continued U.S. and international attention to the long-standing problem of piracy in the region. A recent development in one of the piracy trials in Norfolk, VA, has highlighted a potential limitation in the definition of piracy under the United States Code. This report first examines the historical development of the offense of piracy, as defined by Congress and codified in the United States Code. The focus then turns to how contemporary international agreements define piracy. Finally, the report highlights a recent federal district court ruling that the offense of piracy under 18 U.S.C. § 1651 requires a robbery at sea. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29617/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement
This report discusses the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), a free trade agreement that includes nations on both sides of the Pacific. Original members of the TPP were Brunei, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore. The United States, Australia, Peru, and Vietnam have committed themselves to joining and expanding this group. This report discusses similar trade partnerships, the importance of Asia to U.S. trade and security interests, and U.S. participation in the TPP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29567/
Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview
This report describes the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU), which is the World Trade Organization's (WTO) means of resolving disputes arising under WTO agreements. The report includes criticisms of certain flaws in the DSU, as well as WTO Members' suggestions for improvement. The report also describes the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR), which represents the United States in WTO disputes. Also discussed are pieces of legislation that dictate procedures for specifically the United States in instances of WTO disputes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29721/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement
This report discusses the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), a free trade agreement that includes nations on both sides of the Pacific. Original members of the TPP were Brunei, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore. The United States, Australia, Peru, and Vietnam have committed themselves to joining and expanding this group. This report discusses similar trade partnerships, the importance of Asia to U.S. trade and security interests, and U.S. participation in the TPP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31462/