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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
This report provides an overview of North American trade liberalization before NAFTA, an overview of NAFTA provisions, the economic effects of NAFTA, and policy considerations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626952/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2010 Budget and Appropriations
This report analyzes the FY2010 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action for FY2010, which includes the July 9 House approval of H.R. 3081, the State-Foreign Operations Appropriations bill for FY2010, and July 9 Senate Appropriations Committee passage of its bill (S. 1434). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627176/
European Fighters in Syria and Iraq: Assessments, Responses, and Issues for the United States
This report discusses U.S. and European assessments of and responses to the foreign fighter phenomenon. It focuses on government policies primarily in Western European countries and analyzes EU measures to counter the foreign fighter threat given the EU's largely open internal borders and that 23 EU member states belong to the U.S. Visa Waiver Program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627136/
The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Meetings in Vladivostok, Russia: A Preview
Russia will host the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation's (APEC) week-long series of senior-level meetings in Vladivostok on September 2-9, 2012. The main event for the week will be the 20th APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting to be held September 8-9, 2012. This report looks at the main points of this meeting as they relate to the U.S. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122240/
Civilian Patrols Along the Border: Legal and Policy Issues
This report opens with a discussion on the federal authority to enforce immigration law at the border and some U.S. Border Patrol operations that have affected illegal migration patterns along the southwest border. Next, the report provides a history of civilian border patrol groups, with a particular focus on the “Minuteman Project” and other groups operating along the southwest border. It then highlights issues of authority that might arise, and includes, as an appendix, a table that sets forth various state laws that may be useful to civilians performing immigration-related enforcement activities. The report also addresses some of the legal and policy issues, as mentioned above, that have surfaced from civilian involvement in immigration enforcement at the border. The report concludes with summaries of legislation introduced in the 109th Congress that address the use of civilian border patrols. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9015/
Europe's Preferential Trade Agreements: Status, Content, and Implications
This report explores intersecting issues regarding Europe's preferential trade agreements (PTA) in three parts. The first section discusses the status and primary motivations of the EU's PTAs currently in place or under negotiation. The second compares the content and trade coverage of Europe's PTAs to U.S. PTAs. A third section assesses the implications of the EU's PTA program for the multilateral trading system and U.S. trade policy. A concluding section evaluates future directions for Europe's PTA policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103086/
Interrogation of Detainees: Overview of the McCain Amendment
Controversy has arisen regarding U.S. treatment of enemy combatants and terrorist suspects detained in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other locations, and whether such treatment complies with related U.S. statutes and treaties. Certain provisions of the Detainee Treatment Act (DTA), first introduced by Senator John McCain, have popularly been referred to as the "McCain Amendment." This report discusses the McCain amendment and the application of the McCain amendment by the Department of Defense (DOD) in the updated 2006 version of the Army Field Manual. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10291/
Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2010
This report lists hundreds of instances in which the United States has used its armed forces abroad in situations of military conflict or potential conflict or for other than normal peacetime purposes. The listing contains references, especially from 1980 forward, to continuing military deployments such as U.S. military participation in multinational operations associated with NATO or the United Nations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103144/
Palestinian Factions
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Al Qaeda: Statements and Evolving Ideology
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World Health Organization: A Fact Sheet
The World Health Organization (WHO), established in 1948, is the U.N. System's authority on international public health issues. It assists governments in improving national health services and in establishing worldwide standards for foods, chemicals, and biological and pharmaceutical products. WHO concentrates on preventive rather than curative programs, including efforts to eradicate endemic and other widespread diseases, stabilize population growth, improve nutrition, sanitation, and maternal and child care. WHO works through contracts with other agencies and private voluntary organizations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs339/
Industry Trade Effects Related to NAFTA
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Industry Trade Effects Related to NAFTA
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Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
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Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
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Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
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Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
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Al Qaeda: Profile and Threat Assessment
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Al Qaeda: Statements and Evolving Ideology
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Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
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Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
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Terrorist Attack on USS Cole: Background and Issues for Congress
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Terrorism: Automated Lookout Systems and Border Security Options and Issues
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Policy Challenges in International Migration
This report serves as a broad overview of the standard theory of international migration and offers a brief synopsis of the major immigration-related policy challenges relative to the legislative debates in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689108/
Al Qaeda: Statements and Evolving Ideology
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The World Trade Organization (WTO) Seattle Ministerial Conference
On November 30th to December 3rd, 1999, the highest decision-making body of the World Trade Organization (WTO), called the Ministerial Conference, will meet in Seattle to make broad policy decisions. The key issue for the trade ministers attending the meeting will be to decide on the structure and topics for the agenda of a new round of multilateral trade negotiations. Countries have committed to discuss agriculture and services trade in the new round. Other items that have been proposed for inclusion in the new round or for earlier consideration include tariff reductions, concessions for developing countries, labor issues and the environment, and the WTO decision-making process. Major labor, environmental, and consumer interest groups are expected to be present in Seattle to argue for more consideration of workers' rights and the environment within the WTO. This report provides a summary background on preparations for the Ministerial and related issues of congressional interest. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1002/
The PLO and Its Factions
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Al Qaeda After the Iraq Conflict
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International Terrorism in South Asia
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State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2010 Budget and Appropriations
This report analyzes the FY2010 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action for FY2010, which includes the July 9 House approval of H.R. 3081, the State-Foreign Operations Appropriations bill for FY2010, July 9 Senate Appropriations Committee passage of its bill (S. 1434), and passage of H.R. 3288, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, signed into law Dec. 16, 2009 (P.L. 111-117). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689487/
Trade Promotion Authority and the U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement
This report looks at the effects of the Korean Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) on side agreements via the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103115/
Kim Jong-il's Death: Implications for North Korea's Stability and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the status of North Korea following the death of Kim Jong-il with an analysis of the stability of North Korea as well as a discussion of the implications and options for the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93918/
NATO in Afghanistan: A Test of the Transatlantic Alliance
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U.S. Trade and Investment Relations with sub-Saharan Africa and the African Growth and Opportunity Act
Report that examines African economic trends and U.S. trade and investment flows with SSA. It discusses the provisions of AGOA and the changes that have occurred since its enactment. It concludes with a brief discussion of issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227977/
U.S. Trade and Investment Relations with sub-Saharan Africa and the African Growth and Opportunity Act
This report looks at the pros and cons of recent legislation brought up in the 112th Congress, including the renewal of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) and how it will affect trade between the U.S. and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96743/
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
This report briefly discusses the process used to enact U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs). In each case these agreements have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96665/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2010 Budget and Appropriations
The annual State, Foreign Operations, and Related Agencies appropriations bill is the primary legislative vehicle through which Congress reviews the U.S. international affairs budget and influences executive branch foreign policy making in general. On May 7, 2009, President Obama submitted a budget proposal for FY2010 that requests $53.9 billion for the international affairs budget. This report analyzes the FY2010 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action for FY2010. To date, this includes the introduction and committee approval of H.R. 3081, the House State-Foreign Operations Appropriations bill for FY2010. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26181/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2011 Budget and Appropriations
This report analyzes the FY2011 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action related to FY2011 State-Foreign Operations legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33017/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2011 Budget and Appropriations
This report analyzes the FY2011 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action related to FY2011 State-Foreign Operations legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29590/
United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues
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United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues
This report tracks the process by which Congress provides the funding for U.S. assessed contributions to the regular budgets of the United Nations, its agencies, and U.N. peacekeeping operation accounts, as well as for U.S. voluntary contributions to U.N. system programs and funds. It includes information on the President's request and the congressional response, as well as congressional initiatives during this legislative process. Basic information is provided to help the reader understand this process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10295/
United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues
Report that tracks the process by which Congress provides the funding for U.S. assessed contributions to the regular budgets of the United Nations, its agencies, and U.N. peacekeeping operation accounts, as well as for U.S. voluntary contributions to U.N. system programs and funds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228044/
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties. The congressional-executive agreement has been the vehicle for implementing Congress's long-standing policy of seeking trade benefits for the United States through reciprocal trade negotiations. This report discusses this topic in brief. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29527/
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties. The congressional-executive agreement has been the vehicle for implementing Congress's long-standing policy of seeking trade benefits for the United States through reciprocal trade negotiations. This report discusses this topic in brief. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31461/
U. N. Development Program: A Fact Sheet
The U.N. Development Program (UNDP) coordinates and provides funding for most U.N. development assistance programs. In FY1994, the U.S. contribution of $116 million made the United States the largest donor, comprising about 12 percent of the agency's budget. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26101/
Al Qaeda: Statements and Evolving Ideology
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U.S. Accession to ASEAN's Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC)
This report analyze the legal and diplomatic issues involved with the possible accession of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations' (ASEAN) Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC) by the United States. It is expected that this process could be concluded within the year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743613/
Second FY2008 Supplemental Appropriations for Military Operations, International Affairs, and Other Purposes
This report discusses supplemental appropriations for fiscal years 2008 and 2009. During its first session, the 110th Congress approved fiscal year 2008 emergency supplemental appropriations of $86.8 billion for the Department of Defense and $2.4 billion for international affairs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743525/
Terrorist Capabilities for Cyberattack: Overview and Policy Issues
This report examines possible terrorists' objectives and computer vulnerabilities that might lead to an attempted cyberattack against the critical infrastructure of the U.S. homeland, and also discusses the emerging computer and other technical skills of terrorists and extremists. Policy issues include exploring ways to improve technology for cybersecurity, or whether U.S. counterterrorism efforts should be linked more closely to international efforts to prevent cybercrime. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743371/
International Terrorism: Threat, Policy, and Response
This report examines international terrorist actions, threats, U.S. policies and responses. It reviews the nation’s use of tools at its disposal to combat terrorism, from diplomacy, international cooperation, and constructive engagement to physical security enhancement, economic sanctions, covert action, and military force. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9506/