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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties

Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties

Date: January 31, 2003
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Terrorist Attack on USS Cole: Background and Issues for Congress

Terrorist Attack on USS Cole: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: January 30, 2001
Creator: Perl, Raphael F & O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arab League Boycott of Israel

Arab League Boycott of Israel

Date: April 19, 2006
Creator: Weiss, Martin A
Description: This report briefly discusses the Arab League's boycott of Israeli companies and Israeli-made goods since Israel's founding in 1948, as well as U.S. efforts to end the boycott and prevent U.S. firms in participating in the boycott.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Border Security: Fences Along the U.S. International Border

Border Security: Fences Along the U.S. International Border

Date: January 13, 2005
Creator: Nuñez-Neto, Blas & Viña, Stephen R
Description: This report outlines the issues involved with the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS’s) completion of a three-tiered, 14-mile fence, along the border near San Diego, California. The state of California has delayed completion of the fence due primarily to legal and policy conflicts with its federally-approved, state-run Coastal Management Program. Current authorization for the fence only allows the waiver of the Endangered Species Act and the National Environmental Policy Act. During the 108th Congress, a variety of proposals were introduced that would have allowed the department to waive a number of other environmental, conservation, and cultural laws and requirements to varying degrees. Similar proposals are likely to surface again during the 109th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Border Security: Fences Along the U.S. International Border

Border Security: Fences Along the U.S. International Border

Date: November 28, 2005
Creator: Nuñez-Neto, Blas & Viña, Stephen R
Description: This report outlines the issues involved with the Department of Homeland Security's (DHS's) completion of a three-tiered, 14-mile fence, along the border near San Diego, California. The state of California delayed completion of the fence due primarily to legal and policy conflicts with its federally-approved, state-run Coastal Management Program. Former authorization for the fence only allowed the waiver of the Endangered Species Act and the National Environmental Policy Act. During the 109th Congress, provisions to facilitate the completion of the border fence were included in the REAL ID Act of 2005 (H.R. 41 8), which was subsequently added to H.R. 1268, the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act, and signed into law on May 1 1,2005 (P.L. 109-13). The border fence provisions allow the Secretary of DHS to waive all legal requirements determined necessary to ensure expeditious construction of authorized barriers and roads.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Border Security: Key Agencies and Their Missions

Border Security: Key Agencies and Their Missions

Date: January 26, 2006
Creator: Nuñez-Neto, Blas
Description: After the massive reorganization of federal agencies precipitated by the creation of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), there are now four main federal agencies charged with securing the United States’ borders: the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP), which patrols the border and conducts immigrations, customs, and agricultural inspections at ports of entry; the Bureau of Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE), which investigates immigrations and customs violations in the interior of the country; the United States Coast Guard, which provides maritime and port security; and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), which is responsible for securing the nation’s land, rail, and air transportation networks. This report is meant to serve as a primer on the key federal agencies charged with border security; as such it will briefly describe each agency’s role in securing our nation’s borders.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biosafety Protocol for Genetically Modified Organisms: Overview

Biosafety Protocol for Genetically Modified Organisms: Overview

Date: January 18, 2001
Creator: Segarra, Alejandro E & Fletcher, Susan R
Description: This report presents a background on Biosafety Protocol for genetically modified organisms and an overview of Biosafety Protocol negotiations, key provisions and related issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Free Trade, and the 2003 Summit in Bangkok, Thailand

Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Free Trade, and the 2003 Summit in Bangkok, Thailand

Date: August 1, 2003
Creator: Nanto, Dick K
Description: On October 20-21, 2003, the Eleventh APEC Leader’s Meeting (informal summit) was held in Bangkok, Thailand. The theme for APEC 2003 is “A World of Differences: Partnership for the Future” which is intended to bring together the best potential of all APEC economies to confront the challenges of the future, particularly in achieving the APEC goal of free and open trade and investment for developed APEC economies. For the United States, APEC raises fundamental questions that are of special interest to Congress. One is whether consensus can be achieved on the APEC vision of free trade and investment in the Asia Pacific or whether future trade liberalization will be confined primarily to bilateral free-trade agreements or multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biosafety Protocol for Genetically Modified Organisms: Overview

Biosafety Protocol for Genetically Modified Organisms: Overview

Date: July 5, 2000
Creator: Segarra, Alejandro E
Description: The Biosafety Protocol to the 1992 Convention on biological Diversity, adopted in early 2000, addresses the safe handling, transfer, and trade of biological organisms. The Protocol sets forth procedures and rules concerning trade in biological products, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) that have engendered controversy, especially when they are used as agricultural crops. These rules are of key importance to U.S. economic interests in agriculture as well as those dealing in other genetically modified organisms. This report provides a brief summary of the key provisions of the Protocol and the major issues associated with them.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Free Trade, and the 2001 Summit in Shanghai

Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Free Trade, and the 2001 Summit in Shanghai

Date: October 26, 2001
Creator: Nanto, Dick K
Description: On October 20-21, 2001, the Ninth APEC Leaders’ Meeting (summit) was hosted by China in Shanghai. The office theme for APEC 2001 was “Meeting New Challenges in the New Century: Achieving Common Prosperity through Participation and Cooperation” with the sub-themes of: (1) sharing the benefits of globalization and the new economy, (2) advancing trade and investment, and (3) promoting sustained economic growth. For the United States, APEC raises fundamental questions that are of special interest to Congress. One is whether consensus can be achieved on the APEC vision of free trade and investment in the Asia Pacific or whether future trade liberalization will be confined primarily to bilateral free-trade agreements or multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department