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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law

Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law

Date: June 5, 1998
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E & Shuey, Robert
Description: This report provides background on foreign policy sanctions and the events that might necessitate their use, criteria to consider when determining if sanctions are appropriate, approaches that might be effective, and aspects of the use of sanctions that are sometimes overlooked or not considered fully. The report also provides an uncomplicated map of where sanctions policies and options currently may be found in U.S. law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law

Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law

Date: June 5, 1998
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E. & Shuey, Robert D.
Description: This report provides background on foreign policy sanctions and the events that might necessitate their use, criteria to consider when determining if sanctions are appropriate, approaches that might be effective, and aspects of the use of sanctions that are sometimes overlooked or not considered fully. The report also provides an uncomplicated map of where sanctions policies and options currently may be found in U.S. law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Enlargement in Central Europe

Enlargement in Central Europe

Date: November 10, 1994
Creator: Gallis, Paul E.
Description: In December 1994, NATO members will begin the process of debating possible criteria for new members from Central Europe. Alliance relations with Russia will be a central factor determining the outcome of the debate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environment and the World Trade Organization (WTO) at Seattle: Issues and Concerns

Environment and the World Trade Organization (WTO) at Seattle: Issues and Concerns

Date: December 21, 1999
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: This meeting of the decision making body of the WTO was expected to make decisions that would lead to another round of negotiations on a wide variety of trade rules and related issues. Although the United States continues to assert the necessity of pursuing the twin goals of free trade and environmental protection and to argue that these need not be in conflict, controversy remains over how the multilateral trading system should address the specifics of environmental issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EURATOM and the United States: Renewing the Agreement for Nuclear Cooperation

EURATOM and the United States: Renewing the Agreement for Nuclear Cooperation

Date: April 26, 1996
Creator: Behrens, Carl E & Donnelly, Warren H
Description: The European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) is a regional organization established in 1958 to "create conditions necessary for the establishment and growth of nuclear industries." The United States promoted its establishment to benefit sales of U.S. nuclear power reactors and related equipment. fuels and technology in Europe. The agreement for nuclear cooperation between the United States and EURATOM expired at the end of 1995. On November 29 President Clinton submitted to Congress a new agreement. reached after several years of difficult negotiation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act

Date: March 3, 1999
Creator: Seitzinger, Michael V.
Description: This report gives an overview of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, which was intended to prohibit bribery of foreign officials by American corporations. It includes information about the original legislation, amendments in 1988, and amendments in 1998 that brought the legislation into conformance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's agreement on bribery.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The GATT and the WTO: An Overview

The GATT and the WTO: An Overview

Date: March 27, 1995
Creator: Wilson, Arlene
Description: The Uruguay Round Agreement reduced tariffs, brought services, intellectual property, and agriculture under the discipline of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and established the World Trade Organization. Multilateral trade issues for the future include continuing services negotiations, the relationship of the environment and labor standards to trade, and investment and competition policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The GATT and the WTO: An Overview

The GATT and the WTO: An Overview

Date: March 27, 1995
Creator: Wilson, Arlene
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Adequacy of Commitments Under the U.N. Framework Convention and the Berlin Mandate

Global Climate Change: Adequacy of Commitments Under the U.N. Framework Convention and the Berlin Mandate

Date: October 25, 1996
Creator: Morrissey, Wayne A
Description: This report discusses the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) convened July 8-19, 1996, in Geneva, Switzerland.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Carbon Emissions and End-Use Energy Demand

Global Climate Change: Carbon Emissions and End-Use Energy Demand

Date: January 20, 1999
Creator: Rowberg, Richard E
Description: This report presents an analysis of the potential impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on U.S. energy demand. The analysis focuses on 27 common end-uses — light duty vehicles, residential space heating, industrial direct process heat, etc. — that describe the way energy is used in the United States
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Coal Use in China and Other Asian Developing Countries

Global Climate Change: Coal Use in China and Other Asian Developing Countries

Date: June 16, 1999
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Description: Report discussing factors behind China's planned reliance on coal for future energy growth, including background information, factors in Asian coal use trends, Asian and world energy demands, the Asian coal and world markets, CO2 emissions trends, projected energy supply and emissions from other sources, and general conclusions regarding the issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Congressional Concern About "Back Door" Implementation of the 1997 U.N. Kyoto Protocol

Global Climate Change: Congressional Concern About "Back Door" Implementation of the 1997 U.N. Kyoto Protocol

Date: February 3, 1999
Creator: Morrissey, Wayne A
Description: This report discusses legislation and issues relating to global climate change, some legislation and some FY1999 appropriations bills were used as vehicles for explicit congressional direction to the executive branch about possible "back door" implementation of the Kyoto Protocol.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Reducing Greenhouse Gases - How Much from What Baseline?

Global Climate Change: Reducing Greenhouse Gases - How Much from What Baseline?

Date: March 11, 1998
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Description: This report discusses the ways to reduce emissions of six greenhouses gases after the Kyoto meeting on Global Climate Change. Projecting the reductions that would be required if the U.S. were to ratify the treaty is difficult. While emissions of CO are fairly well established and account for 2 about 85% of total carbon equivalent emissions, emissions of the other gases, especially N O, are more uncertain.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol

Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol

Date: April 10, 1998
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report discusses the Kyoto Protocol and whether the United States is now legally bound by the Protocol, the legal implications of signing it, whether it could be implemented as an executive agreement without submission to the Senate, and whether the Protocol could be used as the legal basis for regulation of emissions even prior to ratification.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: The Role of U.S. Foreign Assistance

Global Climate Change: The Role of U.S. Foreign Assistance

Date: November 21, 1997
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Description: This report discusses the role of U.S. foreign assistance to reduce emissions of the greenhouse gases that most experts believe cause global warming
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Three Policy Perspectives

Global Climate Change: Three Policy Perspectives

Date: August 31, 1998
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Description: This paper examines three reasonably distinct starting points from which a U.S. response to the 1992 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change is being framed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change Treaty: Negotiations and Related Issues

Global Climate Change Treaty: Negotiations and Related Issues

Date: November 21, 1997
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: This report discusses the negotiations leading the Kyoto conference of the parties. The United States and other parties to the 1992 Climate Change Convention signed at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro will meet December 1-12 in Kyoto, Japan, to conclude year-long negotiations on a legally binding protocol or amendment to reduce or stabilize emissions of greenhouse gas emissions. The U.S. proposal to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases to 1990 levels between 2008-2012 is less ambitious than environmentalists and many other treaty Parties urge, but represents a commitment that others, including many in business, fear could damage the economy. A key aspect of the negotiations also is what should be expected of developing nations, whose current emissions of greenhouse gases are relatively small, but are expected to increase rapidly over the next decade with economic development. A sense of the Senate resolution calls for all countries to meet scheduled reductions, and would agree to U.S. participation only if harm to the domestic economy is avoided. If agreement is reached in Kyoto, Senate approval would be required for U.S. ratification, and legislation to implement commitments would also likely be necessary.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change Treaty: The Kyoto Protocol

Global Climate Change Treaty: The Kyoto Protocol

Date: July 31, 1998
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R.
Description: Negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) were completed December 11, 1997, committing the industrialized nations to specified, legally binding reductions in emissions of six "greenhouse gases." This report discusses the major provisions of the Kyoto Protocol.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Haiti: Efforts to Restore President Aristide, 1991-1994

Haiti: Efforts to Restore President Aristide, 1991-1994

Date: May 11, 1995
Creator: Taft-Morales, Maureen
Description: This report tracks the efforts to restore to office President Aristide of Haiti between the years 1991-1994. During this period, the main U.S. foreign policy concern was the restoration of the democratic process to Haiti. Closely related to this was the issue of Haitians attempting to flee to the United States by boat. Congressional concerns focused on human rights, Haitian migration, socioeconomic conditions, and drug trafficking.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration: Visa Entry/Exit Control System

Immigration: Visa Entry/Exit Control System

Date: November 9, 1998
Creator: Krouse, William J & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration: Visa Entry/Exit Control System

Immigration: Visa Entry/Exit Control System

Date: August 26, 1998
Creator: Krouse, William J & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Industrial Energy Intensiveness and Energy Costs in the Context of Climate Change Policy

Industrial Energy Intensiveness and Energy Costs in the Context of Climate Change Policy

Date: November 21, 1997
Creator: Gelb, Bernard A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Environment: Current Major Global Treaties

International Environment: Current Major Global Treaties

Date: November 5, 1996
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Financial Institutions and Environment: Multilateral Development Banks and the Global Environment Facility

International Financial Institutions and Environment: Multilateral Development Banks and the Global Environment Facility

Date: February 25, 1994
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R & Cody, Betsy A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department