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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Arab League Boycott of Israel

Arab League Boycott of Israel

Date: April 19, 2006
Creator: Weiss, Martin A
Description: This report briefly discusses the Arab League's boycott of Israeli companies and Israeli-made goods since Israel's founding in 1948, as well as U.S. efforts to end the boycott and prevent U.S. firms in participating in the boycott.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Algeria: Current Issues

Algeria: Current Issues

Date: April 24, 2006
Creator: Migdalovitz, Carol
Description: This report examines the current state of Algeria, including the country's associations with terrorism, despite steady decreases of domestic terrorism; the lessening in power of the Algerian military; and growing oil revenues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The European Union in 2006 and Beyond

The European Union in 2006 and Beyond

Date: April 6, 2006
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Description: The European Union (EU) experienced significant changes in 2004 as it enlarged from 15 to 25 members and continued work on a new constitutional treaty to institute internal reforms and further EU political integration. In 2005, the EU is expected to build on these efforts and seek to implement several recent foreign policy and defense initiatives. This report describes the current status of the EU’s “constitution,” EU enlargement, the EU’s evolving foreign and defense policies, and possible implications for U.S.-EU relations.
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The Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA)

The Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA)

Date: April 26, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: No firms have been sanctioned under the Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA), and it has terminated with respect to Libya. In August 2001, the Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA, P.L. 104-172) was renewed for another five years (P.L. 107-24). No firms have been sanctioned under ILSA, and ILSA has terminated with respect to Libya. In the 109th Congress, H.R. 282 and S. 333 contain provisions that would modify ILSA. This report discusses various issues including the background and passages of the ILSA and its effectiveness.
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Civilian Patrols Along the Border: Legal and Policy Issues

Civilian Patrols Along the Border: Legal and Policy Issues

Date: April 7, 2006
Creator: Vina, Stephen R; Nuñez-Neto, Blas & Weir, Alyssa Bartlett
Description: This report opens with a discussion on the federal authority to enforce immigration law at the border and some U.S. Border Patrol operations that have affected illegal migration patterns along the southwest border. Next, the report provides a history of civilian border patrol groups, with a particular focus on the “Minuteman Project” and other groups operating along the southwest border. It then highlights issues of authority that might arise, and includes, as an appendix, a table that sets forth various state laws that may be useful to civilians performing immigration-related enforcement activities. The report also addresses some of the legal and policy issues, as mentioned above, that have surfaced from civilian involvement in immigration enforcement at the border. The report concludes with summaries of legislation introduced in the 109th Congress that address the use of civilian border patrols.
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Immigration Related Border Security Legislation in the 109th Congress

Immigration Related Border Security Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: May 10, 2006
Creator: Nuñez-Neto, Blas & Beaver, Janice Cheryl
Description: This report is organized to reflect the main border security issues relating to the movement of people into the country, as indicated by the legislation currently pending in the 109th Congress.
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Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy

Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy

Date: November 24, 1982
Creator: Bite, Vita
Description: Following a review of such broad policy issues, this report treats specific human rights issues of current interest. Discussions of controversy over the selection of an Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs and of human rights policy at the international financial institutions are followed by reviews of U.S. human rights policy toward Argentina, El Salvador, Nicaragua, South Africa, and the Soviet Union.
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Article 98 Agreements and Sanctions on U.S. Foreign Aid to Latin America

Article 98 Agreements and Sanctions on U.S. Foreign Aid to Latin America

Date: March 30, 2006
Creator: Ribando, Clare
Description: This report discusses the so-called “Article 98 agreements”. The article contains a provision that the Bush Administration has sought bilateral agreements worldwide to exempt U.S. citizens from ICC prosecution. In 2002, Congress passed the American Servicemembers’ Protection Act or ASPA (P.L. 107-206, title II), which prohibits military assistance to countries that are party to the ICC and that do not have Article 98 agreements. Some Members of Congress and Bush Administration officials have expressed concerns about the unintended effects of these sanctions on U.S. relations with Latin America. Policymakers are considering some options to mitigate these effects without undermining ASPA or diplomatic efforts to secure Article 98 agreements.
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Article 98 Agreements and Sanctions on U.S. Foreign Aid to Latin America

Article 98 Agreements and Sanctions on U.S. Foreign Aid to Latin America

Date: April 10, 2006
Creator: Ribando, Clare
Description: This report discusses the so-called “Article 98 agreements”. The article contains a provision that the Bush Administration has sought bilateral agreements worldwide to exempt U.S. citizens from ICC prosecution. In 2002, Congress passed the American Servicemembers’ Protection Act or ASPA (P.L. 107-206, title II), which prohibits military assistance to countries that are party to the ICC and that do not have Article 98 agreements. Some Members of Congress and Bush Administration officials have expressed concerns about the unintended effects of these sanctions on U.S. relations with Latin America. Policymakers are considering some options to mitigate these effects without undermining ASPA or diplomatic efforts to secure Article 98 agreements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Border Security and Military Support: Legal Authorizations and Restrictions

Border Security and Military Support: Legal Authorizations and Restrictions

Date: May 23, 2006
Creator: Vina, Stephen R
Description: The military generally provides support to law enforcement and immigration authorities along the southern border. Reported escalations in violence and illegal immigration, however, have prompted some lawmakers to reevaluate the extent and type of military support that occurs in the border region. President Bush has reportedly announced an interest in sending National Guard troops to support the Border Patrol. Addressing domestic laws and activities with the military, however, might run afoul of the Posse Comitatus Act, which prohibits use of the armed forces to perform the tasks of civilian law enforcement unless explicitly authorized. There are alternative legal authorities for deploying the National Guard, and the precise scope of permitted activities and funds may vary with the authority exercised.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Border Security and Military Support: Legal Authorizations and Restrictions

Border Security and Military Support: Legal Authorizations and Restrictions

Date: May 15, 2006
Creator: Vina, Stephen R
Description: The military generally provides support to law enforcement and immigration authorities along the southern border. Reported escalations in violence and illegal immigration, however, have prompted some lawmakers to reevaluate the extent and type of military support that occurs in the border region. President Bush has reportedly announced an interest in sending National Guard troops to support the Border Patrol. Addressing domestic laws and activities with the military, however, might run afoul of the Posse Comitatus Act, which prohibits use of the armed forces to perform the tasks of civilian law enforcement unless explicitly authorized. There are alternative legal authorities for deploying the National Guard, and the precise scope of permitted activities and funds may vary with the authority exercised. This report will be updated as warranted.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China and Falun Gong

China and Falun Gong

Date: May 25, 2006
Creator: Lum, Thomas
Description: “Falun Gong,” also known as “Falun Dafa,”1 combines an exercise regimen with meditation and moral tenets. The “Falun Gong” movement has led to the largest and most protracted public demonstrations in China since the democracy movement of 1989. On April 25, 1999, an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 adherents assembled in front of Zhongnanhai, the Chinese Communist Party leadership compound, and participated in a silent protest against state repression of their activities. On July 21, 1999, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) government, fearful of the spread of social unrest, outlawed the movement and began to arrest Falun Gong protesters.
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South Africa: U.S. Policy After Sanctions

South Africa: U.S. Policy After Sanctions

Date: March 29, 1988
Creator: Branaman, Brenda
Description: None
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South Africa: U.S. Policy After Sanctions

South Africa: U.S. Policy After Sanctions

Date: May 1, 1987
Creator: Branaman, Brenda
Description: None
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Sanctions against South Africa: Activities of the 99th Congress

Sanctions against South Africa: Activities of the 99th Congress

Date: February 13, 1987
Creator: Branaman, Brenda
Description: None
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Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union

Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union

Date: January 20, 2006
Creator: Woolf, Amy F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union

Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union

Date: April 6, 2006
Creator: Woolf, Amy F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Date: April 27, 2006
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

Date: May 12, 2006
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: This report provides background and analysis and discusses the most recent regarding the law of the sea convention.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress

United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress

Date: May 11, 2006
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: None
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NATO Nuclear Forces: Modernization and Arms Controls

NATO Nuclear Forces: Modernization and Arms Controls

Date: January 24, 1983
Creator: Sloan, Stanley R
Description: None
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Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START)

Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START)

Date: December 8, 1982
Creator: Wrenn, Harry
Description: None
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Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues

Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues

Date: March 22, 2006
Creator: Kim, Julie
Description: From late 2004 through early 2005, a combination of intensified international pressure and deadlines associated with Euro- Atlantic integration processes prompted a spate of transfers of indicted persons to the tribunal. Full cooperation with ICTY is a key prerequisite to further progress toward a shared long-term goal for the western Balkan countries: closer association with and eventual membership in the European Union (EU) and NATO. As of March 2006, six persons indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) remained at large, including wartime Bosnian Serb leaders Radovan Karadzic and Gen. Ratko Mladic.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taiwan's Accession to the WTO and Its Economic Relations with the United States and China

Taiwan's Accession to the WTO and Its Economic Relations with the United States and China

Date: November 4, 2005
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department