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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative
In June 2005, G8 finance ministers proposed the new Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI). The MDRI proposes to cancel debts of some of the world's poorest countries owed to the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and African Development Bank. This report discusses MDRI's implementation and raises some issues regarding debt relief's effectiveness as a form of foreign assistance for possible congressional consideration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87385/
Burma's Political Prisoners and U.S. Sanctions
This report discusses the current issues in Burma (Myanmar) in regards to political prisoners and the resulting U.S. sanctions against the nation. It includes an introduction and definitions; information about current estimates of prisoners and prisoner releases; the relation of political prisoners, parliamentary elections and national reconciliation; and U.S. sanctions and U.S. efforts regarding political prisoners, as well as relevant issues for Congress to consider. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272025/
NATO Common Funds Burdensharing: Background and Current Issues
This report gives an overview of the feasibility of burdensharing amongst North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) member states due to the global financial crisis and defense budget cuts in many of the contributing nations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87246/
U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications
This report provides an overview of U.S.-Mexico trade and economic trends, the Mexican economy, the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and major trade issues between the United States and Mexico. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87295/
The Palestinians: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of current issues in U.S.-Palestinian relations. It also contains an overview of Palestinian society and politics and descriptions of key Palestinian individuals and groups--chiefly the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), the Palestinian Authority (PA), Fatah, Hamas, and the Palestinian refugee population. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276914/
Iran Sanctions
This report looks at the purposes and results of U.S. sanctions in Iran, which were initiated as a result of Iran's nuclear program and human rights issues. It ends by discussing future issues that Congress can consider regarding the sanctions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99120/
The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement
This report presents a summary of trade negotiations and the proposed U.S.-Panama free trade agreement (FTA). The proposed U.S.-Panama FTA is a comprehensive agreement. Some 88% of U.S. commercial and industrial exports would become duty-free upon implementation, with remaining tariffs phased out over a 10-year period. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99084/
The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement
This report presents a summary of trade negotiations and the proposed U.S.-Panama free trade agreement (FTA). The proposed U.S.-Panama FTA is a comprehensive agreement. Some 88% of U.S. commercial and industrial exports would become duty-free upon implementation, with remaining tariffs phased out over a 10-year period. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99085/
Southwest Border Violence: Issues in Identifying and Measuring Spillover Violence
This report looks at the nature of the U.S.-Mexico drug trafficking conflict and assessments of how the conflict could spill across the border. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103078/
Monitoring and Verification in Arms Control
This report reviews some of the monitoring and verification provisions in the new START Treaty between the U.S. and Russia and compares these with some of the provisions in the original START Treaty. It focuses, specifically, on differences between the treaties in the provisions governing the exchange of data, known as telemetry, generated during missile flight tests; provisions governing the monitoring of mobile intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs); and differences in the numbers and types of on-site inspections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103092/
Non-Governmental Organizations’ Activities in North Korea
This report looks at the activities and effectiveness of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) - non-profit, charitable institutions - in the lives of ordinary North Koreans. The role of NGOs in North Korea may re-emerge as a congressional interest, as the Obama Administration has expressed interest in restarting humanitarian assistance to North Korea. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99053/
Iran Sanctions
This report focuses on the United States' relationship with Iran and how the Obama Administration is handling prior administration's economic sanctions against Iran. The Obama Administration's policy approach toward Iran has contrasted with the Bush Administration's by attempting to couple the imposition of sanctions to an active and direct U.S. effort to negotiate with Iran on the nuclear issue. That approach was not initially altered because of the Iranian dispute over its June 12, 2009, elections. However, with subsequent negotiations yielding no firm Iranian agreement to compromise, since early 2010 the Administration has focused on achieving the imposition of additional U.N., U.S., and allied country sanctions whose cumulative effect would be to compel it to accept a nuclear bargain. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85483/
Iran Sanctions
The objective of sanctions may be on its way to achievement but has not been accomplished to date. U.S. officials believe that these sanctions caused Iran to return to the nuclear bargaining table in April 2012 with greater seriousness and intent toward peaceful resolution. Despite the imposition of what many now consider to be "crippling" sanctions, some in Congress believe that economic and diplomatic pressure on Iran needs to increase further and faster. In the 112th Congress, legislation would enhance both the economic sanctions and human rights-related provisions of a previous Iran sanctions laws However, movement on new sanctions might be on hold pending the outcome of a second round of nuclear talks slated for May 23 in Baghdad. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85482/
Burma's Political Prisoners and U.S. Sanctions
The installation of the Union Government in 2011 and the undertaking of initial reforms have raised the prospects for the resumption of a democratically elected civilian government in Burma after five decades of military rule. The release of Burma's political prisoners has a central role in U.S. policy and Burma's political future. Many of the U.S. sanctions on Burma were implemented after Burma's ruling military junta suppressed protests and detained many political prisoners. In addition, the removal of many of the existing U.S. sanctions requires the release of all political prisoners in Burma. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85397/
North Korea: Chronology of Provocations, 1950-2000
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1839/
Iran Sanctions
Report that focuses on the United States' relationship with Iran and how the Obama Administration is handling prior administration's economic sanctions against Iran. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228100/
India and Pakistan: Current U.S. Economic Sanctions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1843/
The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice
This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under Military Commission Order (M.C.O.) No. 1 to general military courts-martial conducted under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ). A summary of the case Rumsfeld v. Hamdan follows, in particular the shortcomings identified by the Supreme Court. The report provides an overview of relevant legislation. Finally, the report provides two charts to compare the regulations issued by the Department of Defense to standard procedures for general courts-martial under the Manual for Courts-Martial and to proposed legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10452/
China: Current U.S. Sanctions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs120/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1581/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1580/
Global Climate Change: Status of Negotiations
In December 2007, the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) held their 13th annual meeting in Bali, Indonesia, and began the process of working toward an agreement/treaty that would succeed the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC when it expires in 2012. The Protocol includes a mandate for a reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 30 developed/industrialized nations to an average of some 5% below their 1990 levels over the commitment period 2008-2012. The broad array of these issues, briefly discussed in this report, has been described by some as comprising perhaps the most complex negotiations ever undertaken internationally. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10759/
The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)
No firms have been sanctioned under the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA), and a GAO study in December 2007 said that the effects of ISA and other U.S. sanctions on Iran's economy are "difficult to determine." However, with Iran under increasing U.N. and other diplomatic pressure, many foreign firms now seem hesitant to finalize investment deals with Iran. In the 110th Congress, several bills, including the House-passed H.R. 1400 would add ISA provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10565/
Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty
On May 24, 2002, President Bush and Russia's President Putin signed the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (known as the Treaty of Moscow) that will reduce strategic nuclear weapons to between 1,700 and 2,200 warheads by December 31, 2012. Russia convinced the United States to sign a legally binding treaty, but the United States rejected any limits and counting rules that would require the elimination of delivery vehicles and warheads removed from service. It wanted the flexibility to reduce its forces at its own pace, and to restore warheads to deployed forces if conditions warranted. Russian officials have hailed the success of Russia's diplomacy in convincing the United States to sign a legally binding Treaty that casts Russia as an equal partner in the arms control process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10461/
The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq
The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post-Saddam Iraq is causing backlash in Arab Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. The Iraqi Kurds' ties to the United States and the U.S. drive to stabilize Iraq are increasingly less likely to help the Kurds to parry these challenges. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10629/
The Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative
In Juen 2005, G8 finance ministers proposed the new Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI). The MDRI proposes to cancel debts of some of the world's poorest countries owed to the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and African Development Bank. This report discusses MDRI's implementation and raises some issues regarding debt relief's effectiveness as a form of foreign assistance for possible congressional consideration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10682/
The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice
This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under Military Commission Order (M.C.O.) No. 1 to general military courts-martial conducted under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ). A summary of the case Rumsfeld v. Hamdan follows, in particular the shortcomings identified by the Supreme Court. The report provides an overview of relevant legislation. Finally, the report provides two charts to compare the regulations issued by the Department of Defense to standard procedures for general courts-martial under the Manual for Courts-Martial and to proposed legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10451/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8730/
The U.N. Convention Against Torture: Overview of U.S. Implementation Policy Concerning the Removal of Aliens
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8768/
South Africa: U.S. Policy After Sanctions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8887/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8759/
Liberia: 1989-1997 Civil War, Post-War Developments, and U.S. Relations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8431/
Libya: Legislative Basis for U.S. Economic Sanctions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8687/
Public Safety Communications Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9365/
Senate Proposals to Enhance Chemical Facility Security
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9228/
Technology Transfer And National Security Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9232/
The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice
This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under M.C.O. No. 1 to general military courts-martial conducted under the UCMJ. The report notes some of the criticism directed at the President’s M.O., and explains how those concerns are addressed by the military commission orders and instructions. The report provides two charts to compare the regulations issued by the Department of Defense and standard procedures for general courts-martial under the Manual for Courts-Martial. The second chart, which compares procedural safeguards incorporated in the regulations with established procedures in courts martial, follows the same order and format used in CRS Report RL31262, Selected Procedural Safeguards in Federal, Military, and International Courts, in order to facilitate comparison with safeguards provided in federal court and the International Criminal Court. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9774/
Singapore-U.S. Free Trade Agreement
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5595/
Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues
From late 2004 through early 2005, a combination of intensified international pressure and deadlines associated with Euro- Atlantic integration processes prompted a spate of transfers of indicted persons to the tribunal. Full cooperation with ICTY is a key prerequisite to further progress toward a shared long-term goal for the western Balkan countries: closer association with and eventual membership in the European Union (EU) and NATO. As of March 2006, six persons indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) remained at large, including wartime Bosnian Serb leaders Radovan Karadzic and Gen. Ratko Mladic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8783/
India and Pakistan: U.S. Economic Sanctions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5088/
Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5995/
The U.N. Convention Against Torture: Overview of U.S. Implementation Policy Concerning the Removal of Aliens
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5990/
Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5994/
Port and Maritime Security: Potential for Terrorist Nuclear Attack Using Oil Tankers
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5955/
North Korea: Chronology of Provocations, 1950-2003
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5079/
Weapons of Mass Destruction Counterproliferation: Legal Issues for Ships and Aircraft
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5698/
U.S.-China Counter-Terrorism Cooperation: Issues for U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5840/
Africa: Trade and Development Initiatives by the Clinton Administration and Congress
In February 1997, the Clinton Administration submitted the second of five annual reports on the Administration's Comprehensive Trade and Development Policy for Africa as required by section 134 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (House Document 103-3415, Vol. 1.). On April 24, 1997, members of the African Trade and Investment Caucus introduced a bill, H.R. 1432, on U.S.-Africa trade and investment issues. In his State of the Union address in January 1998, President Clinton called on Congress to pass the trade legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs813/
South Africa: U.S. Policy After Sanctions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8877/
Sanctions against South Africa: Activities of the 99th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8876/