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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Infringement of Intellectual Property Rights and State Sovereign Immunity
This report discusses the Eleventh Amendment and the concept of state sovereign immunity. Although the amendment appears to be focused on preventing suits against a state by non-residents in federal courts, the U.S. Supreme Court has expanded the concept of state sovereign immunity to reach much further than the literal text of the amendment, to include immunity from suits by the states' own citizens and immunity from suits under federal law within a state's own court system. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491543/
Turkey: Selected Foreign Policy Issues and U.S. Views
This report focuses on the foreign policy of Turkey, a long-time valued U.S. NATO ally, and examines the ruling Justice and Development Party's (AKP) recalculation of the country's approach to foreign affairs and its possible effects on relations with the United States. This report surveys Turkish foreign policy issues that are of critical interest to U.S. officials and Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491570/
The Millennium Development Goals: The September 2010 U.N. High-level Meeting
This report discusses overarching trends in Millennium Development Goals (MDG) progress and lessons learned from previous and ongoing efforts to achieve them. The MDGs are a group of measurable development targets agreed to by 189 U.N. member states - including the United States - as part of the 2000 Millennium Declaration. The MDGs cover a number of issues, such as eradicating extreme hunger and poverty, combating HIV/AIDS, and promoting gender equality and women's empowerment. This report examines U.S. policy toward the MDGs and how, if at all, the Goals fit into U.S. development and foreign assistance policy. It also examines different schools of thought regarding the effectiveness of the Goals, their role in international development, and their long-term sustainability. This report addresses the MDGs as a whole; it does not assess or analyze issues pertaining to the individual Goals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491560/
Missile Defense and NATO's Lisbon Summit
This is a report regarding the November 2010 Lisbon Summit, wherein alliance heads of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization approved a plan to integrate existing NATO members ballistic missile defense capabilities into their overall defense posture. This report looks at advantages, challenges, and current Congressional legislation regarding the Obama Administration's Phased Adaptive Approach, which would be regional ballistic missile defense capability in Europe. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491310/
Dispute Settlement Under the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement: An Overview
This report discusses the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA) and the two types of formal dispute settlement it contains: 1) State-State and 2) investor-State. The report also discusses how the PTPA differs from earlier U.S. Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491312/
International Criminal Court Cases in Africa: Status and Policy Issues
This report provides background on the International Criminal Court (ICC) and its investigations in Africa, with an overview of cases currently before the Court. The report also examines issues raised by the ICC's actions in Africa, including the potential deterrence of future abuses and the potential impact on African peace processes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491334/
U.S.-South Korea Relations
This report covers the background and current state of the relationship of the United States with the Republic of Korea (ROK, formerly South Korea), including economic and trade issues, North Korea, naval, and military events. It is a general overview of the current state of relations with South Korea. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491348/
Tanzania: Background and Current Conditions
This report discusses the current political climate in Tanzania, an important U.S. ally in Africa. The report also provides some general background information. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491335/
In Brief: Next Steps in the War in Afghanistan? Issues for Congress
This report considers issues that may be of interest to Congress as it considers the strength and duration of further U.S. involvement in Afghanistan, to 2014 and beyond. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491600/
Nuclear Energy Cooperation with Foreign Countries: Issues for Congress
This report begins with a brief overview of the global nuclear power industry, including the possessors of enrichment and reprocessing technology. It then describes the state of the U.S. nuclear industry, particularly its dependence on both international trade and foreign suppliers. The report then reviews the multilateral nuclear nonproliferation mechanisms. It concludes with a detailed summary of U.S. nuclear cooperation agreements, the primary mechanism by which the United States both promotes U.S. nuclear commerce and ensures that such commerce does not contribute to clandestine nuclear weapons programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491065/
Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress
This report focuses on international and domestic human trafficking and U.S. policy responses, with particular emphasis on the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) and its subsequent reauthorizations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc490954/
Organized Crime in the United States: Trends and Issues for Congress
This report provides a background on organized crime in the United States as well as the tools that Congress has afforded for the federal government to combat it. It outlines the trends in federal efforts to investigate and prosecute organized crime. The report then discusses the evolving nature of organized crime, including the domestic impact of organized crime, prominent organized crime groups, and their illegal activities affecting the United States. It concludes with a discussion of issues that Congress may wish to consider, including the attention the federal government allocates to organized crime matters, the multilateral efforts to combat organized crime, and issues surrounding a potential nexus between organized crime and terrorism. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc490895/
Uganda: Current Conditions and the Crisis in North Uganda
This report discusses the current political conditions of Uganda, which have long been ravaged by the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), an armed rebel group backed by the government of Sudan. In particular, the report focuses on largely unsuccessful Ugandan efforts to resolve the conflict with the LRA, as well as talks with the U.S. under the Bush Administration and the recent suicide bombings in Kampala, Uganda, in July 2010. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc490897/
Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer
This report discusses section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the specific requirements of which must be met in order for the United States to engage in civilian nuclear cooperation with other states. The AEA also provides for exemptions to these requirements, export control licensing procedures, and criteria for terminating cooperation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc490936/
President Obama's November 2014 Visit to China: The Bilateral Agreements
This report discusses President Obama's visit to China, in November-10-12. The purpose of the visit was focused on increasing cooperation on global and regional challenges such as climate change, global economic governance, non-proliferation, and pandemic diseases like Ebola; improving the military-to-military relationship; and expanding business and people-to-people ties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc490900/
Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments
This report discusses the strategic significance of Guam for defense buildup and the force relocation and deployments from the U.S. mainland. It also discusses the concerns and issues for Congress, such as allies and partners, relations with China, and legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc490984/
The UNESCO World Heritage Convention: Congressional Issues
This report provides background information on the World Heritage Convention, outlines U.S. participation and funding, and highlights criteria for adding and removing sites from the World Heritage Lists. It discusses possible issues for the 111th Congress, including the Convention's possible impact on U.S. sovereignty, the role of the legislative branch in designating sites, and the potential implications for a site's inclusion on the Lists. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462264/
Strategic Arms Control After START: Issues and Options
The United States and Soviet Union signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty in 1991; it entered into force in December 1994 and expired in December 2009. This report provides background information about the START Treaty and reviews the discussions about a possible successor to START. It also presents a range of alternatives that the United States and Russia might consider if they choose to follow START with a new framework for the arms control process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462273/
Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer
This report discusses section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the specific requirements of which must be met in order for the United States to engage in civilian nuclear cooperation with other states. The AEA also provides for exemptions to these requirements, export control licensing procedures, and criteria for terminating cooperation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462256/
Strategic Arms Control After START: Issues and Options
The United States and Soviet Union signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty in 1991; it entered into force in December 1994 and expired in December 2009. This report provides background information about the START Treaty and reviews the discussions about a possible successor to START. It also presents a range of alternatives that the United States and Russia might consider if they choose to follow START with a new framework for the arms control process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463457/
Guatemala: Political, Security, and Socio- Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of Guatemala's current political and economic conditions, relations with the United States, and several issues likely to figure in future decisions by Congress and the Administration regarding Guatemala. With respect to continued cooperation and foreign assistance, these issues include security and governance, protection of human rights and human rights conditions on some U.S. military aid to Guatemala, support for the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala, combating narcotics trafficking and organized crime, trade relations, and inter-country adoption. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463027/
Suits Against Terrorist States by Victims of Terrorism
This report provides background on the doctrine of State immunity and the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA); details the evolution of the terrorist State exception and some of the resulting judicial decisions; describes legislative efforts to help claimants satisfy their judgments; summarizes the decision in the hostages' suit against Iran and Congress's efforts to intervene; summarizes what has happened with Iraq's assets, and provides an overview of proposed legislation digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462018/
U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress
This report discusses key policy issues related to the civilian nuclear cooperation agreement signed by the United States and Russia on May 6, 2008, including future nuclear energy cooperation with Russia, U.S.-Russian bilateral relations, nonproliferation cooperation, and Russia's policies toward Iran. These issues were relevant to the debate when the agreement was being considered in the 110th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462086/
Strategic Arms Control After START: Issues and Options
This report provides background information about the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty and reviews the discussions about a possible successor. It also presents a range of alternatives that the United States and Russia might consider if they choose to follow START with a new framework for the arms control process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462007/
Strategic Arms Control After START: Issues and Options
The United States and Soviet Union signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty in 1991; it entered into force in December 1994 and expired in December 2009. This report provides background information about the START Treaty and reviews the discussions about a possible successor to START. It also presents a range of alternatives that the United States and Russia might consider if they choose to follow START with a new framework for the arms control process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462297/
Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress
This report focuses on international and domestic human trafficking and U.S. policy responses, with particular emphasis on the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) and its subsequent reauthorizations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462268/
Mongolia: Issues for Congress
This report examines current economic and political issues in Mongolia, including the country's democratic development, investment climate, military engagement and foreign relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462281/
Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
This report provides an annotated list of U.N. agencies, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), key U.S. government agencies, and a sample list of major international and U.S.-based aid organizations that are providing humanitarian assistance to Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463498/
Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments
This report discusses the strategic significance of Guam for defense buildup and the force relocation and deployments from the U.S. mainland. It also discusses the concerns and issues for Congress, such as allies and partners, relations with China, and legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463441/
The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Congressional Issues
This report provides an overview of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and describes its background, objectives, and structure, including the role of the Convention's monitoring body, the CEDAW Committee. It examines U.S. policy and issues in the U.S. ratification debate, including the Convention's possible impact on U.S. sovereignty, its effectiveness in combating discrimination, and its role as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463483/
Considerations for Possible Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State
This report briefly discusses different options available for confronting the Islamic State (IS, formerly known as ISIS or ISIL) with the use of military force. The examines the legal considerations relevant to each approach. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462352/
Strategic Arms Control After START: Issues and Options
This report provides background information about the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty and reviews the discussions about a possible successor to START. It also presents a range of alternatives that the United States and Russia might consider if they choose to follow START with a new framework for the arms control process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462356/
International HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: Key Changes to U.S. Programs and Funding
This report discusses changes in coordination and funding for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria programs as directed in the Reauthorization Act. It provides background on the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) implementation including results and funding through FY2008. It then discusses similarities and differences between H.R. 5501 as passed by the House on April 2, 2008, and H.R. 5501 as passed by the Senate on July 16, 2008. Finally, it details key outcomes in the legislation as enacted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462577/
Russia's Compliance with the INF Treaty
This report discusses the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty and the Obama administration's claim that Russia has violated the treaty by testing a land-based cruise missile with a range greater than 500 kilometers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462694/
International Drug Control Policy
This report provides an overview of U.S. international drug control policy. It describes major international counternarcotics initiatives and evaluates the broad array of U.S. drug control policy tools currently in use. The report also considers alternative counterdrug policy approaches to international drug control initiatives and raises several counterdrug policy issues and considerations for policy makers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462668/
Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA): What Is It, and How Has It Been Utilized?
This report discusses the provisions of multilateral and bilateral agreements addressing the status of U.S. armed forces abroad, which are commonly referred to as Status of Force Agreements (SOFA), and provides a survey of current SOFAs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc461967/
U.S.-Africa Leaders Summit: Frequently Asked Questions and Background
This report provides information about the early August 2014 U.S.-Africa Leaders Summit in Washington, DC, and policy issues likely to be addressed by participants in the summit and other events being held in conjunction with it. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462789/
Strategic Arms Control After START: Issues and Options
The United States and Soviet Union signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty in 1991; it entered into force in December 1994 and expired in December 2009. This report provides background information about the START Treaty and reviews the discussions about a possible successor to START. It also presents a range of alternatives that the United States and Russia might consider if they choose to follow START with a new framework for the arms control process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462774/
Strategic Arms Control After START: Issues and Options
The United States and Soviet Union signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty in 1991; it entered into force in December 1994 and expired in December 2009. This report provides background information about the START Treaty and reviews the discussions about a possible successor to START. It also presents a range of alternatives that the United States and Russia might consider if they choose to follow START with a new framework for the arms control process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc461927/
United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress
This report tracks the process by which Congress provides the funding for U.S. assessed contributions to the regular budgets of the United Nations, its agencies, and U.N. peacekeeping operation accounts, as well as for U.S. voluntary contributions to U.N. system programs and funds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462777/
Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with Russia: Statutory Procedures for Congressional Consideration
This report first sketches the procedures prescribed by the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) for congressional action in relation to agreements of this kind, then summarizes legislative proceedings occurring in relation to the proposed agreement with Russia, beginning with its recent submission. Thereafter, the report addresses several questions of the implementation and intent of these statutory requirements that are raised by their application to the proposed agreement with the Russian Federation. Special attention is given to the definition of "days of continuous session" and possible implications of this definition depending on whether or not the requisite period ends before the end of the 110th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462126/
United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues
This report tracks the process by which Congress provides the funding for U.S. assessed contributions to the regular budgets of the United Nations, its agencies, and U.N. peacekeeping operation accounts, as well as for U.S. voluntary contributions to U.N. system programs and funds. It includes information on the President's request and the congressional response, as well as congressional initiatives during this legislative process. Basic information is provided to help the reader understand this process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462128/
Protecting the U.S. Perimeter: "Border Searches" Under the Fourth Amendment
This report addresses the scope of the government's authority to search and seize individuals at the border pursuant to the constitutional framework that encompasses the border search exception to the warrant and probable cause requirements of the Fourth Amendment. This report also describes the varying levels of suspicion generally associated with each type of border search as interpreted by the courts. In addition, this report highlights some of the border security recommendations made by the 9/11 Commission and legislative actions taken in the 108th, 109th, and 110th Congresses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462911/
U.S.-Vietnam Economic and Trade Relations: Issues for the 113th Congress
This report examines the bilateral trade issues between United States and Vietnam, discussing their main elements and exploring their potential implications for the 113th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463246/
United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress
This report tracks the process by which Congress provides the funding for U.S. assessed contributions to the regular budgets of the United Nations, its agencies, and U.N. peacekeeping operation accounts, as well as for U.S. voluntary contributions to U.N. system programs and funds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463255/
United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues
This report tracks the process by which Congress provides the funding for U.S. assessed contributions to the regular budgets of the United Nations, its agencies, and U.N. peacekeeping operation accounts, as well as for U.S. voluntary contributions to U.N. system programs and funds. It includes information on the President's request and the congressional response, as well as congressional initiatives during this legislative process. Basic information is provided to help the reader understand this process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463105/
Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides background information about Saudi Arabia and analyzes current issues in U.S.-Saudi relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463151/
Japan's Possible Entry Into the Trans-Pacific Partnership and Its Implications
This report discusses the effects of the possible entry of Japan to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) negotiations. The TPP issue presents both risks and opportunities for the United States and Japan. On the one hand, it could reinvigorate an economic relationship that has remained steady but stagnant, by forcing the two countries to address long-standing, difficult issues, and allowing them to raise their relationship to a higher level. On the other hand, failure to do so could indicate that the underlying problems are too fundamental to overcome and could set back the relationship. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462409/
Agriculture in the WTO: Limits on Domestic Support
This report provides a brief overview of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) commitments most relevant for U.S. domestic farm policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462865/
Strategic Arms Control After START: Issues and Options
The United States and Soviet Union signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty in 1991; it entered into force in December 1994 and expired in December 2009. This report provides background information about the START Treaty and reviews the discussions about a possible successor to START. It also presents a range of alternatives that the United States and Russia might consider if they choose to follow START with a new framework for the arms control process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462156/