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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice
This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under M.C.O. (Military Commission Order) No. 1 to general military courts-martial conducted under the UCMJ. The report notes some of the criticism directed at the President's M.O., and explains how those concerns are addressed by the military commission orders and instructions. A summary of the Hamdan case follows, as well as an overview of relevant legislation. Finally, the report provides two charts to compare the regulations issued by the Department of Defense to standard procedures for general courts-martial under the Manual for Courts-Martial and to proposed legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10212/
The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice
This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under Military Commission Order (M.C.O.) No. 1 and general military courts-martial conducted under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ). The report notes some of the criticism directed at the President's Military Order (M.O.), and explains how those concerns are addressed by the military commission orders and instructions. The report concludes by summarizing legislation introduced to authorize and regulate military tribunals to try suspected Al Qaeda and Taliban members, and provides two charts to compare the proposed military tribunals under proposed legislation, the regulations issued by the Department of Defense, and standard procedures for general courts-martial under the Manual for Courts-Martial. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10202/
The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq
The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post-Saddam Iraq is causing backlash in Arab Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. The Iraqi Kurds' ties to the United States and the U.S. drive to stabilize Iraq are increasingly less likely to help the Kurds to parry these challenges. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10629/
Côte d'Ivoire's Post-Election Crisis
This report discusses the contested November 28, 2010, presidential election runoff election in Côte d'Ivoire. Laurent Gbagbo and his rival, former Prime Minister Alassane Ouattara, both continue to claim to have won the runoff and to exercise exclusive national executive authority, and to attempt to consolidate their control over state institutions. An increase in armed conflicts in late February 2011, among other indicators, signals the possible outbreak of a renewed civil war. This report discusses these events, as well as U.S. and international efforts to support a peaceful transition in Côte d'Ivoire, which has remained largely divided since the civil war that began in 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33102/
Côte d'Ivoire's Post-Election Crisis
This report discusses the contested November 28, 2010, presidential election runoff election in Côte d'Ivoire. Laurent Gbagbo and his rival, former Prime Minister Alassane Ouattara, both continue to claim to have won the runoff and to exercise exclusive national executive authority, and to attempt to consolidate their control over state institutions. An increase in armed conflicts in late February 2011, among other indicators, signals the possible outbreak of a renewed civil war. This report discusses these events, as well as U.S. and international efforts to support a peaceful transition in Côte d'Ivoire, which has remained largely divided since the civil war that began in 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33101/
Samantar v. Yousef: The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act and Foreign Officials
On June 1, 2010, the U.S. Supreme Court decided unanimously in Samantar v. Yousef that the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA), which governs the immunity of foreign states in U.S. courts, does not apply in suits against foreign officials. The report also addresses legislation considered by the 111th Congress that would have affected the immunity of foreign officials (the Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act, S. 2930, 111th Cong.). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31473/
U.S. Sanctions on Burma
Existing U.S. sanctions on Burma are based on various U.S. laws and Presidential Executive Orders. This report provides a brief history of U.S. policy towards Burma and the development of U.S. sanctions, a topical summary of those sanctions, and an examination of additional sanctions that have been considered, but not enacted, by Congress, or that could be imposed under existing law or executive orders. The report concludes with a discussion of options for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31470/
China: Economic Sanctions
This report discusses a list of economic sanctions that the United States currently maintains against China. The influence of Congress on U.S. policy toward China, once significant because so much hung on the annual possibility that favorable trade terms could be suspended, has more recently been diffused. Sanctions that remain in place today can all be modified, eased, or lifted altogether by the President, without congressional input. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7269/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7136/
Morocco-U.S. Free Trade Agreement
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7217/
Morocco-U.S. Free Trade Agreement
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7216/
Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8365/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8366/
Mexico-United States Dialogue on Migration and Border Issues, 2001-2005
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8038/
Central America and the Dominican Republic in the Context of the Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA) with the United States
This report explains the conditions in five countries in Central America (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and one country in the Caribbean (Dominican Republic) that will be partners with the United States in the U.S.-Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA) signed in August 2004. In U.S. approval action, the House and Senate passed the required implementing legislation (H.R. 3045) on July 27 and 28, 2005, and the President signed it into law (P.L. 109-53) on August 2, 2005. The agreement will enter into force for the other countries when their legislatures have approved it. The legislatures of El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala have approved the pact so far. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7993/
Central America and the Dominican Republic in the Context of the Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA) with the United States
This report explains the conditions in five countries in Central America (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and one country in the Caribbean (Dominican Republic) that will be partners with the United States in the U.S.-Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA) signed in August 2004. All of the signatory countries except Costa Rica have approved the pact. The agreement will enter into force for the approving countries on an agreed date, tentatively January 1, 2006. In U.S. approval action, the House and Senate passed the required implementing legislation (H.R. 3045) on July 27 and 28, 2005, and the President signed it into law (P.L. 109-53) on August 2, 2005. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7992/
Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6685/
U.S.-China Counter-Terrorism Cooperation: Issues for U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6505/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6661/
Weapons of Mass Destruction Counterproliferation: Legal Issues for Ships and Aircraft
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5698/
Singapore-U.S. Free Trade Agreement
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5595/
Singapore-U.S. Free Trade Agreement
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3565/
Singapore-U.S. Free Trade Agreement
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3564/
Singapore-U.S. Free Trade Agreement
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3563/
U.S.-Japanese Trade: The Semiconductor Arrangement
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs78/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2493/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1581/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1580/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4266/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4265/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4264/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4263/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4262/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4261/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4260/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4259/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4258/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2499/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2498/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2497/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2496/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2495/
Nuclear Arms Control: The U.S.-Russian Agenda
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2494/
The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice
This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under M.C.O. No. 1 to general military courts-martial conducted under the UCMJ. The report notes some of the criticism directed at the President’s M.O., and explains how those concerns are addressed by the military commission orders and instructions. The report provides two charts to compare the regulations issued by the Department of Defense and standard procedures for general courts-martial under the Manual for Courts-Martial. The second chart, which compares procedural safeguards incorporated in the regulations with established procedures in courts martial, follows the same order and format used in CRS Report RL31262, Selected Procedural Safeguards in Federal, Military, and International Courts, in order to facilitate comparison with safeguards provided in federal court and the International Criminal Court. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6166/
Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress
This report presents policy and oversight issues for Congress arising from (1) maritime territorial disputes involving China in the South China Sea (SCS) and East China Sea (ECS) and (2) an additional dispute over whether China has a right under international law to regulate U.S. and other foreign military activities in its 200-nautical-mile maritime Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122273/
Non-Governmental Organizations’ Activities in North Korea
This report looks at the activities and effectiveness of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) - non-profit, charitable institutions - in the lives of ordinary North Koreans. The role of NGOs in North Korea may re-emerge as a congressional interest, as the Obama Administration has expressed interest in restarting humanitarian assistance to North Korea. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99053/
Armed Conflict in Syria: U.S. and International Response
This report looks at the recent conflict in Syria, particularly casualty estimates and an assessment of possible future scenarios. A large part of the report looks at U.S. policy towards Syria, including how Congress will handle humanitarian dilemmas, security of Syrian Weapons of Mass Destruction, and how the country is open to opportunities for terrorism recruitment. It also looks at key developments that have occurred during the conflict, including supports of the Asad government, political dynamics, and minority communities. The report ends with a look at the Syrian economy and current/possible sanctions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98067/
Iran Sanctions
This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides examples of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran, based on a wide range of open-source reporting. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122335/
The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement
This report presents a summary of trade negotiations and the proposed U.S.-Panama free trade agreement (FTA). The proposed U.S.-Panama FTA is a comprehensive agreement. Some 88% of U.S. commercial and industrial exports would become duty-free upon implementation, with remaining tariffs phased out over a 10-year period. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99085/
Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses
Report that analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides examples of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran, based on a wide range of open-source reporting. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227984/