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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties. The congressional-executive agreement has been the vehicle for implementing Congress's long-standing policy of seeking trade benefits for the United States through reciprocal trade negotiations. This report discusses this topic in brief. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31461/
U. N. Development Program: A Fact Sheet
The U.N. Development Program (UNDP) coordinates and provides funding for most U.N. development assistance programs. In FY1994, the U.S. contribution of $116 million made the United States the largest donor, comprising about 12 percent of the agency's budget. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26101/
Al Qaeda: Statements and Evolving Ideology
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8269/
U.S. Accession to ASEAN's Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC)
This report analyze the legal and diplomatic issues involved with the possible accession of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations' (ASEAN) Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC) by the United States. It is expected that this process could be concluded within the year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743613/
Second FY2008 Supplemental Appropriations for Military Operations, International Affairs, and Other Purposes
This report discusses supplemental appropriations for fiscal years 2008 and 2009. During its first session, the 110th Congress approved fiscal year 2008 emergency supplemental appropriations of $86.8 billion for the Department of Defense and $2.4 billion for international affairs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743525/
Terrorist Capabilities for Cyberattack: Overview and Policy Issues
This report examines possible terrorists' objectives and computer vulnerabilities that might lead to an attempted cyberattack against the critical infrastructure of the U.S. homeland, and also discusses the emerging computer and other technical skills of terrorists and extremists. Policy issues include exploring ways to improve technology for cybersecurity, or whether U.S. counterterrorism efforts should be linked more closely to international efforts to prevent cybercrime. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743371/
International Terrorism: Threat, Policy, and Response
This report examines international terrorist actions, threats, U.S. policies and responses. It reviews the nation’s use of tools at its disposal to combat terrorism, from diplomacy, international cooperation, and constructive engagement to physical security enhancement, economic sanctions, covert action, and military force. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9506/
International Terrorism: Threat, Policy, and Response
This report examines international terrorist actions, threats, U.S. policies and responses. It reviews the nation’s use of tools at its disposal to combat terrorism, from diplomacy, international cooperation, and constructive engagement to physical security enhancement, economic sanctions, covert action, and military force. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9505/
U.S. Foreign Assistance to the Middle East: Historical Background, Recent Trends, and the FY2016 Request
This report is an overview of U.S. foreign assistance to the Middle East, including a brief historical review of foreign aid levels, a description of specific country programs, and an analysis of current foreign aid issues. The Middle East is perennially a major focus of interest as Congress exercises these powers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795572/
European Security, Islamist Terrorism, and Returning Fighters
This report discusses European concerns about Islamist terrorism, which have been heightened considerably by several attacks over the last year and the growing number of European citizens training and fighting with extremist groups in foreign conflicts (especially in Syria and Iraq). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795836/
Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) Negotiations: Overview and Issues for Congress
The purpose of the ongoing Trade in Services (TiSA) negotiations is to build on those rules by further increasing liberalization among the 23 negotiating parties, including the United States and European Union (EU), to open markets to foreign service providers and enhance rules governing services trade. This report provides a brief overview of U.S. trade in services, background on services in U.S. trade agreements, and an in-depth discussion of the ongoing TiSA negotiations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824480/
Border Security Metrics Between Ports of Entry
This report provides background and information about performance and operational metrics related to U.S. border security as well as issues for Congressional consideration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824618/
U.S. Embassy in Iraq
This report discusses issues with the U.S. Embassy in Iraq such as the potential rising cost, delay in opening, quality of construction, and reported assertions of trafficking-like labor practices by First Kuwaiti General Trade and Contracting Company, the primary builder of the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822553/
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
This report discusses a new development bank, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), launched by China that is posing a challenge to U.S. policymakers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822545/
Counting Casualties in Syria and Iraq: Process and Challenges
This report discusses the difficulties of collecting war-related casualty data in Iraq and Syria and provides an overview of some of the current estimated figures available through selected organizations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847794/
The Pacific Alliance: A Trade Integration Initiative in Latin America
This report provides an overview of the structure of the Pacific Alliance, events leading up to its creation, and the economic significance of the Member countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847590/
The Islamic State's Acolytes and the Challenges They Pose to U.S. Law Enforcement
This report discusses an analysis of publicly available information on homegrown violent jihadist activity in the United States since September 11, 2001, which suggests that the Islamic State (IS) and its acolytes may pose broad challenges to domestic law enforcement and homeland security efforts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847603/
U.S.- Thailand Free Trade Agreement Negotiations
This report examines Thailand’s economy and trade orientation, the scope and significance of the U.S.-Thai commercial relationship, and the likely top issues in the negotiations. The report concludes with a short summary of the Congressional role and interest in the FTA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822479/
Stafford Act Assistance and Acts of Terrorism
This report provides a brief overview of Stafford Act declarations under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act and the types of assistance they could authorize in response to terrorist incidents. This report also provides examples of Stafford Act declarations that have been issued for previous terrorist attacks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855739/
The Islamic State's Acolytes and the Challenges They Pose to U.S. Law Enforcement
This report provides an analysis of publicly available information on homegrown violent jihadist activity in the United States since September 11, 2001, which suggests that the Islamic State (IS) and its acolytes may pose broad challenges to domestic law enforcement and homeland security efforts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855743/
Climate Change Paris Agreement Opens for Signature
This report discusses the new international Paris Agreement, signed by 175 out of 196 Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change on April 22, 2016 to address greenhouse-gas-induced climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855796/
EU State Aid and Apple's Taxes
This report discusses the recent investigations by the European Union (EU) regarding claims that certain countries had provided illegal state aid via favorable tax rulings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc944728/
Foreign Aid and the Education Sector: Programs and Priorities
This report is a descriptive profile of recent U.S. foreign aid education sector activities; it outlines actors, policy, funding levels, and programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc944679/
European Security and Islamist Terrorism
This report briefly discusses the current security climate in Europe, as well as policy considerations for the U.S. Over the last two years, European governments and the European Union (EU) have grown increasingly alarmed by the rise of the Islamic State terrorist organization, its ability to attract European citizens to join the fighting in the Syria-Iraq region, and its use of violent extremist propaganda to inspire others. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc944815/
U.S. Textile Manufacturing and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations
This report examines the potential implications of a prospective Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) on the U.S. textile manufacturing industry. The TPP is a proposed regional free trade agreement (FTA) currently under negotiation among 11 Pacific Rim countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272034/
Terrorism Risk Insurance: Issue Analysis and Overview of Current Program
This report looks at the background and current Congressional status of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287888/
Terrorism Risk Insurance: Issue Analysis and Overview of Current Program
This report looks at the background and current Congressional status of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284476/
Terrorism Risk Insurance: Issue Analysis and Overview of Current Program
This report looks at the background and current Congressional status of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282352/
Terrorism Risk Insurance: Issue Analysis and Overview of Current Program
This report looks at the background and current Congressional status of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306550/
International Food Aid Programs: Background and Issues
This report describes the major U.S. international food aid programs along with the related issues--including the Administration's reform proposals--currently before Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306429/
Membership in the United Nations and Its Specialized Agencies
This report highlights key steps in the process for attaining membership in the United Nations and its specialized agencies. It discusses the capacities associated with U.N. membership and observer status, as well as criteria for and implications of membership. It also examines related U.S. legislation and recent congressional and Obama Administration actions digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332878/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress
This report examines the issues related to the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the state and substance of the negotiations (to the degree that the information is publically available), the specific areas under negotiation, the policy and economic contexts in which the TPP would fit, and the issues for Congress that the TPP presents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463497/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress
This report examines the issues related to the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the state and substance of the negotiations (to the degree that the information is publically available), the specific areas under negotiation, the policy and economic contexts in which the TPP would fit, and the issues for Congress that the TPP presents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463236/
Unaccompanied Children from Central America: Foreign Policy Considerations
This report examines policy considerations for Congress in response to the recent influx of unaccompanied alien children (UAC) from Central American countries being apprehended at the U.S. border. The report also discusses current policy framework and the Obama Administration's diplomatic response. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462819/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress
This report examines the issues related to the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the state and substance of the negotiations (to the degree that the information is publically available), the specific areas under negotiation, the policy and economic contexts in which the TPP would fit, and the issues for Congress that the TPP presents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462377/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress
This report examines the issues related to the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the state and substance of the negotiations (to the degree that the information is publically available), the specific areas under negotiation, the policy and economic contexts in which the TPP would fit, and the issues for Congress that the TPP presents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462583/
International Trade and Finance: Key Policy Issues for the 113th Congress, Second Session
This report provides information about the reforms, Congress's role in the reform process, and how the reforms could affect U.S. interests at the International Monetary Fund (IMF). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462243/
The "Islamic State" Crisis and U.S. Policy
This report provides background and current information on the Islamic State, a transnational Sunni Islamist insurgent and terrorist group that has expanded its control over areas of northwestern Iraq and northeastern Syria since 2013. The report also examines possible U.S. policy options in the wake of increasing international outrage at the Islamic States' brutality and apparent disregard for typical human rights conventions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463391/
Organization of American States: Background and Issues for Congress
This report covers the background of the Organization of American States (OAS). It discusses the importance of U.S. participation in this organization in order to exert authority and shape outcomes in the Western Hemisphere. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463467/
United Nations Reform: U.S. Policy and International Perspectives
This report focuses on U.N. reform efforts and priorities from the perspective of several key actors, including the U.S. government, the U.N. Secretary-General, selected groups of member states, and a cross-section of groups tasked with addressing U.N. reform. It also examines congressional actions related to U.N. reform, as well as future policy considerations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491296/
The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11
In the ninth year of operations since the 9/11 attacks while troops are being withdrawn in Iraq and increased in Afghanistan, the cost of war continues to be a major issue including the total amount appropriated, the amount for each operation, average monthly spending rates, and the scope and duration of future costs. This report analyzes war funding for the Defense Department and tracks funding for USAID and VA Medical funding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491319/
The G-20 Summit: Brisbane, November 15-16, 2014
This report discusses the G-20 Summit held in Brisbane, Australia. In February 2014, the G-20 finance ministers and central bank governors pledged to develop policies that would boost the G-20's collective GDP by more than two percentage points over the coming five years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491004/
A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Comparison of Current Proposals in Brief
This report discusses the President's constitutional authority to use military force against the armed offensive of the Islamic State (IS, also known as ISIL or ISIS) in northern and western Iraq and northeastern Syria. It also covers current proposals for action under congressional authorizations for use of military force (AUMFs). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491183/
Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive
This report provides a brief overview of the early history of the negotiations to reunify Cyprus, a more detailed review of the negotiations since 2008, and a description of some of the issues involved in the talks. A side issue involving trade between the European Union and Turkish Cyprus is also addressed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491164/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement
This report discusses the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), a free trade agreement that includes nations on both sides of the Pacific. Original members of the TPP were Brunei, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore. The United States, Australia, Peru, and Vietnam have committed themselves to joining and expanding this group. This report discusses similar trade partnerships, the importance of Asia to U.S. trade and security interests, and U.S. participation in the TPP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491459/
Terrorist Material Support: A Sketch of 18 U.S.C. 2339A and 2339B
This report discusses the two federal material support statutes that have been at the heart of the Justice Department's terrorist prosecution efforts. One provision outlaws providing material support for the commission of certain designated offenses that might be committed by terrorists, 18 U.S.C. 2339A. The other outlaws providing material support to certain designated terrorist organizations, 18 U.S.C. 2339B. They share a common definition of the term "material support," some aspects of which have recently come under constitutional attack. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491428/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2011 Budget and Appropriations
On February 1, 2010, President Obama submitted a budget proposal for FY2011 that requests $58.49 billion for the international affairs budget, a 16% increase over the enacted FY2010 funding level. This report analyzes the FY2011 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action related to FY2011 State-Foreign Operations legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491329/
Terrorism Risk Insurance: Issue Analysis and Overview of Current Program
This report looks at the background and current Congressional status of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491553/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2011 Budget and Appropriations
On February 1, 2010, President Obama submitted a budget proposal for FY2011 that requests $58.49 billion for the international affairs budget, a 16% increase over the enacted FY2010 funding level. This report analyzes the FY2011 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action related to FY2011 State-Foreign Operations legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc490926/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Negotiations and Issues for Congress
This report examines the issues related to the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the state and substance of the negotiations (to the degree that the information is publically available), the specific areas under negotiation, the policy and economic contexts in which the TPP would fit, and the issues for Congress that the TPP presents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc490982/