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 Country: Russia
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union

Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union

Date: March 6, 2012
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Description: Congress passed the Nunn-Lugar amendment, authorizing U.S. threat reduction assistance to the former Soviet Union, in November 1991, after a failed coup in Moscow and the disintegration of the Soviet Union raised concerns about the safety and security of Soviet nuclear weapons. It has evolved from an emergency response to impending chaos in the Soviet Union, to a more comprehensive threat reduction and nonproliferation effort, to a broader program seeking to keep nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons from leaking out of the former Soviet Union and into the hands of rogue nations or terrorist groups, to a global program to address the threat of weapons of mass destruction. Analysts have debated numerous issues related to U.S. nonproliferation and threat reduction assistance. These include questions about the coordination of and priority given to these programs in the U.S. government, questions about Russia's willingness to provide the United States with access to its weapons facilities, questions about the President's ability to waive certification requirements so that the programs can go forward, and questions about the need to expand the efforts into a global program that receives funding from numerous nations and possibly extends assistance to others outside the former Soviet Union.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty

Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty

Date: October 12, 2006
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Description: On May 24, 2002, President Bush and Russia's President Putin signed the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (known as the Treaty of Moscow) that will reduce strategic nuclear weapons to between 1,700 and 2,200 warheads by December 31, 2012. Russia convinced the United States to sign a legally binding treaty, but the United States rejected any limits and counting rules that would require the elimination of delivery vehicles and warheads removed from service. It wanted the flexibility to reduce its forces at its own pace, and to restore warheads to deployed forces if conditions warranted. Russian officials have hailed the success of Russia's diplomacy in convincing the United States to sign a legally binding Treaty that casts Russia as an equal partner in the arms control process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with Russia: Statutory Procedures for Congressional Consideration and Their Implementation

Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with Russia: Statutory Procedures for Congressional Consideration and Their Implementation

Date: August 21, 2008
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: This report sketches the procedures prescribed by the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) for congressional action in relation to nuclear cooperation agreements, then summarizes legislative proceedings occurring in relation to the proposed agreement with Russia, beginning with its recent submission. It also addresses several questions regarding the implementation and intent of these statutory requirements related to the proposed agreement with the Russian Federation. Special attention is given to the definition of "days of continuous session" and possible implications of this definition depending on whether or not the requisite period ends before the end of the 110th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with Russia: Statutory Procedures for Congressional Consideration and Their Implementation

Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with Russia: Statutory Procedures for Congressional Consideration and Their Implementation

Date: November 26, 2008
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: This report sketches the procedures prescribed by the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) for congressional action in relation to agreements of this kind.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Russia-Georgia Conflict in August 2008: Context and Implications for U.S. Interests

Russia-Georgia Conflict in August 2008: Context and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: March 3, 2009
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: This report provides background information and recent developments in Russia-Georgia conflict in South Ossetia. The report discusses renewed conflict in South Ossetia, implications for Georgia and Russia, and international and U.S. responses.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Russia-Georgia Conflict in South Ossetia: Context and Implications for U.S. Interests

Russia-Georgia Conflict in South Ossetia: Context and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: August 29, 2008
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: This report provides background information and recent developments in Russia-Georgia conflict in South Ossetia. The report discusses renewed conflict in South Ossetia, implications for Georgia and Russia, and international and U.S. responses.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Russia-Georgia Conflict in South Ossetia: Context and Implications for U.S. Interests

Russia-Georgia Conflict in South Ossetia: Context and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: August 13, 2008
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: This report provides background information and recent developments in the Russia-Georgia conflict in South Ossetia.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Russia-Georgia Conflict in South Ossetia: Context and Implications for U.S. Interests

Russia-Georgia Conflict in South Ossetia: Context and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: October 7, 2008
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: This report provides background information regarding Russia-Georgia conflict in South Ossetia and discusses most recent developments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Russia's December 2011 Legislative Election: Outcome and Implications

Russia's December 2011 Legislative Election: Outcome and Implications

Date: December 13, 2011
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: This report discusses the December 2011 elections in Russia, including background information, the campaign, results and assessments of the election, implications for Russia and Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, and implications for U.S. interests. Congress may consider the implications of another Putin presidency, lagging democratization, and human rights abuses in Russia as it debates possible future foreign assistance and trade legislation and other aspects of U.S.-Russia relations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Russia's March 2012 Presidential Election: Outcome and Implications

Russia's March 2012 Presidential Election: Outcome and Implications

Date: March 14, 2012
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: Challenges to Russia's democratic development have long been of concern to Congress as it has considered the course of U.S.-Russia cooperation. Some in Congress have criticized the conduct of the election, but have endorsed continued engagement, while others have called for stepping back and reevaluating the Obama Administration's engagement policy which assists in solving mutual strategic concerns. Congress may consider the implications of another Putin presidency, lagging democratization, and human rights abuses in Russia as it debates possible future foreign assistance and trade legislation and other aspects of U.S.-Russia relations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department