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 Country: Russia
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty

Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty

Date: October 12, 2006
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Description: On May 24, 2002, President Bush and Russia's President Putin signed the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (known as the Treaty of Moscow) that will reduce strategic nuclear weapons to between 1,700 and 2,200 warheads by December 31, 2012. Russia convinced the United States to sign a legally binding treaty, but the United States rejected any limits and counting rules that would require the elimination of delivery vehicles and warheads removed from service. It wanted the flexibility to reduce its forces at its own pace, and to restore warheads to deployed forces if conditions warranted. Russian officials have hailed the success of Russia's diplomacy in convincing the United States to sign a legally binding Treaty that casts Russia as an equal partner in the arms control process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Enlargement in Central Europe

Enlargement in Central Europe

Date: November 10, 1994
Creator: Gallis, Paul E.
Description: In December 1994, NATO members will begin the process of debating possible criteria for new members from Central Europe. Alliance relations with Russia will be a central factor determining the outcome of the debate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union

Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union

Date: March 6, 2012
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Description: Congress passed the Nunn-Lugar amendment, authorizing U.S. threat reduction assistance to the former Soviet Union, in November 1991, after a failed coup in Moscow and the disintegration of the Soviet Union raised concerns about the safety and security of Soviet nuclear weapons. It has evolved from an emergency response to impending chaos in the Soviet Union, to a more comprehensive threat reduction and nonproliferation effort, to a broader program seeking to keep nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons from leaking out of the former Soviet Union and into the hands of rogue nations or terrorist groups, to a global program to address the threat of weapons of mass destruction. Analysts have debated numerous issues related to U.S. nonproliferation and threat reduction assistance. These include questions about the coordination of and priority given to these programs in the U.S. government, questions about Russia's willingness to provide the United States with access to its weapons facilities, questions about the President's ability to waive certification requirements so that the programs can go forward, and questions about the need to expand the efforts into a global program that receives funding from numerous nations and possibly extends assistance to others outside the former Soviet Union.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress

U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress

Date: September 17, 2010
Creator: Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: The United States and Russia signed a civilian nuclear cooperation agreement on May 6, 2008. President Bush submitted the agreement to Congress on May 13. This report discusses key policy issues related to that agreement, including future nuclear energy cooperation with Russia, U.S.-Russian bilateral relations, nonproliferation cooperation and Russia's policies toward Iran.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
National Missile Defense: Russia's Reaction

National Missile Defense: Russia's Reaction

Date: June 14, 2002
Creator: Woolf, Amy F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
National Missile Defense: Russia's Reaction

National Missile Defense: Russia's Reaction

Date: August 10, 2001
Creator: Woolf, Amy F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress

U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress

Date: January 11, 2011
Creator: Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: This report discusses key policy issues related to a nuclear cooperation agreement between the United States and Russia signed on May 6, 2008, including future nuclear energy cooperation with Russia, U.S.-Russian bilateral relations, nonproliferation cooperation, and Russia's policies toward Iran.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

Date: June 4, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the increasing international pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program and how that pressure discourages foreign firms from investing in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production. This report discusses the history and progress of the formal U.S. effort to curb energy investment in Iran, which began with the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) in 1996. This report also discusses U.S. concerns that other nations, e.g., U.S. allies, Russia, and China, are not as strict with their economic sanctions against Iran, and how U.S. policymakers are combating this reticence with various pieces of legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China-U.S.-Soviet Relations

China-U.S.-Soviet Relations

Date: December 3, 1981
Creator: Sutter, Robert G
Description: In 1979, a time of clear downturn in U.S.-Soviet relations over such sensitive issues as SALT, Soviet troops in Cuba, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the Carter Administration moved ahead with a series of measures designed to improve relations with Moscow's major adversary in Asia, the Peoples Republic of China (P.R.C.). The purpose of this report is to provide background for and summarize current developments in U.S. - People’s Republic of China (PRC) relations, including current and pending congressional actions involving the PRC.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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