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 Country: Iraq
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The "Islamic State" Crisis and U.S. Policy
This report provides background and current information on the Islamic State, a transnational Sunni Islamist insurgent and terrorist group that has expanded its control over areas of northwestern Iraq and northeastern Syria since 2013. The report also examines possible U.S. policy options in the wake of increasing international outrage at the Islamic States' brutality and apparent disregard for typical human rights conventions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463391/
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, Illicit Trade, and Investigations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8313/
Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8026/
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, Illicit Trade, and Investigations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8105/
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, International Sanctions, and Illicit Trade
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5082/
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, International Sanctions, and Illicit Trade
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5081/
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, International Sanctions, and Illicit Trade
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5080/
Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6471/
Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6671/
Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4725/
Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4722/
Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4724/
Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4723/
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, International Sanctions, and Illicit Trade
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3205/
Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4719/
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights
Iraq's political system is increasingly characterized by peaceful competition and formation of cross-sectarian alliances. However, ethnic and sectarian political and sometimes violent infighting continues, often involving the questionable use of key levers of power and legal institutions. This infighting-and the belief that holding political power may mean the difference between life and death for the various political communities-significantly delayed agreement on a new government that was to be selected following the March 7, 2010, national elections for the Council of Representatives (COR, parliament). With U.S. diplomatic help, on November 10, 2010, major ethnic and sectarian factions agreed on a framework for a new government, breaking the long deadlock. The agreement, under which Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki is serving a second term, was implemented when a broad-based cabinet was confirmed on December 21, 2010. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40260/
Iraq-Kuwait: U.N. Security Council Resolutions -- Texts and Votes
The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 1-2, 1990, set into motion a series of actions by the United Nations Security Council. Between August 2 and December 4, 1990, the Council adopted 12 resolutions. The numbers and votes of those resolutions are listed and the full text of each resolution is included in the this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26022/
Lawsuits Against State Supporters of Terrorism: An Overview
A 1996 amendment to the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA) enables American victims of international terrorist acts supported by certain States designated by the State Department as supporters of terrorism - Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, Syria, and previously Iraq and Libya - to bring suit in U.S. courts to seek monetary damages. This report, which will be updated, provides an overview of these issues and relevant legislation (H.R. 5167). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10634/
The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq
The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction with Arab leaders in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. However, an overall reduction in violence in Iraq, coupled with continued U.S. political influence over the Kurds, is likely to prevent a destabilizing escalation of the Iraqi Kurd-Arab disputes. Also see CRS Report RL31339, Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security, by Kenneth Katzman. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10630/
The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq
The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction with Arab leaders in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. However, an overall reduction in violence in Iraq, coupled with continued U.S. political influence over the Kurds, is likely to prevent a destabilizing escalation of the Iraqi Kurd-Arab disputes. Also see CRS Report RL31339, Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security, by Kenneth Katzman. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10628/
Lawsuits Against State Supporters of Terrorism: An Overview
A 1996 amendment to the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA) enables American victims of international terrorist acts supported by certain States designated by the State Department as supporters of terrorism - Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, Syria, and previously Iraq and Libya - to bring suit in U.S. courts to seek monetary damages. This report, which will be updated, provides an overview of these issues and relevant legislation (H.R. 5167). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10633/
The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq
The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction with Arab leaders in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. However, an overall reduction in violence in Iraq, coupled with continued U.S. political influence over the Kurds, is likely to prevent a destabilizing escalation of the Iraqi Kurd-Arab disputes. Also see CRS Report RL31339, Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security, by Kenneth Katzman. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10632/
Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq and Afghanistan: Effects and Countermeasures
Since October 2001, Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs, or roadside bombs) have been responsible for many of the more than 2,000 combat deaths in Iraq, and 178 combat deaths in Afghanistan. IEDs are hidden behind signs and guardrails, under roadside debris, or inside animal carcasses, and encounters with these bombs are becoming more numerous and deadly in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Department of Defense (DOD) efforts to counter IEDs have proven only marginally effective, and U.S. forces continue to be exposed to the threat at military checkpoints, or whenever on patrol. IEDs are increasingly being used in Afghanistan, and DOD reportedly is concerned that they might eventually be more widely used by other insurgents and terrorists worldwide. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10213/
U.S.-Iraw Withdrawal/Status of Forces Agreement: Issues for Congressional Oversight
This report begins by discussing the historical legal framework governing U.S. military operations in Iraq. The report then provides a general background as to the contents of agreements traditionally considered Status of Forces Agreements (SOFAs). Finally, the report discusses specific aspects of the SOFA, highlighting issues that may require continued congressional oversight. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83901/
U.S.-Iraw Withdrawal/Status of Forces Agreement: Issues for Congressional Oversight
This report begins by discussing the historical legal framework governing U.S. military operations in Iraq. The report then provides a general background as to the contents of agreements traditionally considered Status of Forces Agreements (SOFAs). Finally, the report discusses specific aspects of the SOFA, highlighting issues that may require continued congressional oversight. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83900/
U.S.-Iraw Withdrawal/Status of Forces Agreement: Issues for Congressional Oversight
This report begins by discussing the historical legal framework governing U.S. military operations in Iraq. The report then provides a general background as to the contents of agreements traditionally considered Status of Forces Agreements (SOFAs). Finally, the report discusses specific aspects of the SOFA, highlighting issues that may require continued congressional oversight. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83898/
U.S.-Iraw Withdrawal/Status of Forces Agreement: Issues for Congressional Oversight
This report begins by discussing the historical legal framework governing U.S. military operations in Iraq. The report then provides a general background as to the contents of agreements traditionally considered Status of Forces Agreements (SOFAs). Finally, the report discusses specific aspects of the SOFA, highlighting issues that may require continued congressional oversight. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83899/
Iraq Crisis and U.S. Policy
This report analyzes the offensive in northern and central Iraq led by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, aka ISIS) -- a Sunni Islamist insurgent and terrorist group -- with a discussion of the offensive's implications, the U.S. response, and related issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332984/
The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq
The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction with Arab leaders in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. However, an overall reduction in violence in Iraq, coupled with continued U.S. political influence over the Kurds, is likely to prevent a destabilizing escalation of the Iraqi Kurd-Arab disputes. Also see CRS Report RL31339, Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security, by Kenneth Katzman. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29740/
Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
This report provides an annotated list of U.N. agencies, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), key U.S. government agencies, and a sample list of major international and U.S.-based aid organizations that are providing humanitarian assistance to Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463498/
Considerations for Possible Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State
This report briefly discusses different options available for confronting the Islamic State (IS, formerly known as ISIS or ISIL) with the use of military force. The examines the legal considerations relevant to each approach. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462352/
Iraq: Weapons Threat, Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2475/
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2472/
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2471/
Iraq: Weapons Threat, Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2477/
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2470/
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2468/
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2469/
The Iran-Iraq War: Implications for U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9596/
U.S.-Iraq Strategic Framework and Status of Forces Agreement: Congressional Response
This report is divided into two main parts: the first describes in detail the actions taken by Congress concerning the planned Iraq Agreements, including legislative initiatives and congressional hearings; the second provides a range of options for further congressional action concerning Congress's role in negotiating, executing, and implementing the Iraq Agreements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462024/
Iraq's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10834/
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks
This report discusses Iraq's political system, which has been restructured through a U.S.-supported election process. The Iraqi government is increasingly characterized by peaceful competition rather than violence, but sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting still remain. This report discusses issues relating to opponents of the Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki and also discusses the atmosphere of nationwide provincial elections. The report also addresses the Obama Administration's plan to reduce the U.S. troop presence in Iraq by August 2010 and briefly addresses the Iranian influence in Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26326/
Iraq-Kuwait: United Nations Security Council Resolutions Test and Votes -- 1991
This report lists the 12 adopted United Nations Security Council resolutions relating to the Iraq-Kuwait situation through October 1991. The texts of these resolutions, along with the votes by members of the Council, are included in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26023/
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq
Iran is materially assisting and influencing major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. Among these factions is that of hardline anti-U.S. cleric Moqtada Al Sadr, whose Mahdi Army militia, according to some observers, serves as a proxy force for Tehran against the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10653/
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq
With a conventional military and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) threat from Saddam Hussein's regime removed, Iran seeks to ensure that Iraq can never again become a threat to Iran, either with or without U.S. forces present in Iraq. By supporting armed Shiite factions, Iran's influence in Iraq has at times hindered U.S. efforts to stabilize Iraq, and has heightened the U.S. threat perception of Iran generally. However, Iran faces difficult choices in Iraq now that its protege Shiite factions, formerly united, are competing and often fighting each other. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10656/
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq
Iran is materially assisting all major Shiite Muslim political factions in Iraq, most of which have longstanding ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran, and their armed militias. The Administration notes growing involvement by Tehran in actively directing training, and arming Shiite militiamen linked, to varying degrees, to hardline cleric Moqtada Al Sadr. Some analysis goes so far as to see a virtual "proxy war" between the United States and Iran inside Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10655/
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq
Iran is materially assisting and influencing major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. The Shiite faction of paramount concern to the Administration is that of Moqtada Al Sadr, whose Mahdi Army militia has periodically battled U.S. and Iraqi government forces, although it is currently relatively quiescent. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10657/
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq
Iran is materially assisting and attempting to influence, in most cases against the United States, major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. The Administration asserts that Tehran is actively directing, training, and arming Shiite militiamen linked, to varying degrees, to hardline anti-U.S. cleric Moqtada Al Sadr. Some analysts see a virtual "proxy war" between the United States and Iran inside Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10654/
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq
Iran is materially assisting and influencing major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. Among these factions is that of hardline anti-U.S. cleric Moqtada Al Sadr, whose Mahdi Army militia, according to some observers, serves as a proxy force for Tehran against the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10652/