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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Intelligence Whistleblower Protections: In Brief
This report describes three sources of Intelligence Community (IC) whistleblower protection including the Intelligence Community Whistleblower Protection Act of 1998 (ICWPA), Presidential Policy Directive 19 (PPD-19), and Title VI of the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 (Title VI). Generally speaking, whistleblowers are those who expose misconduct (e.g., fraud, abuse, or illegal activity) within an organization. In the context of the IC, whistleblowers are generally employees or contractors of federal intelligence agencies who bring to light information on agency wrongdoings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491255/
Intelligence Issues for Congress
This report discusses the efforts currently underway to improve coordination and encourage better analysis amongst the various agencies within the U.S. Intelligence Community, especially with regard to the ongoing and prominent issue of international terrorism. In particular, this report addresses the false intelligence regarding Iraqi weapons of mass destruction and the current efforts in Iraq and Iran in general. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491123/
Intelligence Issues for Congress
This report discusses the efforts currently underway to improve coordination and encourage better analysis amongst the various agencies within the U.S. Intelligence Community, especially with regard to the ongoing and prominent issue of international terrorism. In particular, this report addresses the false intelligence regarding Iraqi weapons of mass destruction and the current efforts in Iraq and Iran in general. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491308/
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: A Sketch of Selected Issues
This report briefly outlines three issues relating to electronic surveillance under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) and touches upon some of the perspectives reflected in the ongoing debate. These issues include the inherent and often dynamic tension between national security and civil liberties, particularly rights of privacy and free speech; the need for the intelligence community to be able to efficiently and effectively collect foreign intelligence information from the communications of foreign persons located outside the United States in a changing, fast-paced, and technologically sophisticated international environment or from United States persons abroad, and the differing approaches suggested to meet this need; and limitations of liability for those electronic communication service providers who furnish aid to the federal government in its foreign intelligence collection. Two constitutional provisions, in particular, are implicated in this debate — the Fourth and First Amendments. This report briefly examines these issues and sets them in context. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462237/
Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire February 28, 2010
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) provides a statutory framework by which government agencies may, when gathering foreign intelligence investigation, obtain authorization to conduct electronic surveillance or physical searches, utilize pen registers and trap and trace devices, or access specified business records and other tangible things. This report discusses three sunsetting amendments of FISA which include the "Lone Wolf" provision, "roving" wiretaps, and access to business records. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463419/
Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire February 28, 2010
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) provides a statutory framework by which government agencies may, when gathering foreign intelligence investigation, obtain authorization to conduct electronic surveillance or physical searches, utilize pen registers and trap and trace devices, or access specified business records and other tangible things. This report discusses three sunsetting amendments of FISA which include the "Lone Wolf" provision, "roving" wiretaps, and access to business records. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463446/
Intelligence Issues for Congress
This report gives an overview of current intelligence issues of interest to the 112th Congress. It includes background and analysis including most recent development, ongoing Congressional concerns, specific issues for the 112th Congress, and a summary of related legislation from the 109th through the 112th Congresses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462371/
Intelligence Issues for Congress
This report explores the various issues currently facing Congress in regards to intelligence and counterterrorism activities, including the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (P.L. 108-458), signed in December 2004; the position of Director of National Intelligence (DNI), which that act created; the importance of collaborative efforts between various intelligence agencies to successfully carry out counterterrorism measures; and other pieces of legislation relevant to such matters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462342/
Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire February 28, 2010
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) provides a statutory framework by which government agencies may, when gathering foreign intelligence investigation, obtain authorization to conduct electronic surveillance or physical searches, utilize pen registers and trap and trace devices, or access specified business records and other tangible things. This report discusses three sunsetting amendments of FISA which include the "Lone Wolf" provision, "roving" wiretaps, and access to business records. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462791/
The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions
This report frames potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service's (USSS) mission and organization through an examination of the USSS history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462764/
Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire February 28, 2010
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) provides a statutory framework by which government agencies may, when gathering foreign intelligence investigation, obtain authorization to conduct electronic surveillance or physical searches, utilize pen registers and trap and trace devices, or access specified business records and other tangible things. This report discusses three sunsetting amendments of FISA which include the "Lone Wolf" provision, "roving" wiretaps, and access to business records. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463207/
"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications
This report reviews the history of the Gang of Four notification process and compares this procedure with that of the "Gang of Eight" notification procedure. The "Gang of Eight" procedure is statutorily based and provides that the chairmen and ranking Members of the intelligence committee, along with the Speaker and minority leader of the House, and Senate majority and minority leaders--rather than the full membership of the intelligence committees-- are to receive prior notice of particularly sensitive covert action programs, if the President determines that limited access to such programs is essential to meet extraordinary circumstances affecting vital U.S. interests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463194/
Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Acquisition: Issues for Congress
This report discusses Congressional issues regarding Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) systems, which are integral components of both national policymaking and military operations, including counterterrorism operations. ISR systems are costly and complicated, and the relationships among organizations responsible for designing and operating these systems are equally complicated. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463134/
Sensitive Covert Action Notifications: Oversight Options for Congress
This report describes the statutory provision authorizing Gang of Eight notifications, reviews the legislative history of the provision, and examines the impact of such notifications on congressional oversight. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463114/
Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire February 28, 2010
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) provides a statutory framework by which government agencies may, when gathering foreign intelligence investigation, obtain authorization to conduct electronic surveillance or physical searches, utilize pen registers and trap and trace devices, or access specified business records and other tangible things. This report discusses three sunsetting amendments of FISA which include the "Lone Wolf" provision, "roving" wiretaps, and access to business records. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462180/
Congress as a Consumer of Intelligence Information
This report examines the role of Congress as a consumer of national intelligence and examines several issues that Congress might address in the 111th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462929/
Congress as a Consumer of Intelligence Information
This report examines the role of Congress as a consumer of national intelligence and examines several issues that Congress might address during the second session of the 111th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462949/
"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications
This report reviews the history of Gang of Four notification process and compares this procedure with that of the "Gang of Eight" notification procedure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463326/
Intelligence Issues for Congress
This report gives an overview of current intelligence issues of interest to the 112th Congress. It includes background and analysis including most recent development, ongoing Congressional concerns, specific issues for the 112th Congress, and a summary of related legislation from the 109th through the 112th Congresses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501531/
Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Acquisition: Issues for Congress
This report discusses Congressional issues regarding Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) systems, which are integral components of both national policymaking and military operations, including counterterrorism operations. ISR systems are costly and complicated, and the relationships among organizations responsible for designing and operating these systems are equally complicated. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501918/
Intelligence Reform After Five Years: The Role of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI)
This report discusses the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-458) that was the most significant legislation affecting the U.S. intelligence community since the National Security Act of 1947. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501496/
Intelligence Issues for Congress
This report discusses the efforts currently underway to improve coordination and encourage better analysis amongst the various agencies within the U.S. Intelligence Community, especially with regard to the ongoing and prominent issue of international terrorism. In particular, this report addresses the false intelligence regarding Iraqi weapons of mass destruction and the current efforts in Iraq and Iran in general. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501497/
The Department of Homeland Security Intelligence Enterprise: Operational Overview and Oversight Challenges for Congress
This report provides an overview of the DHS IE both at headquarters and within the components. It examines how DHS IE is organized and supports key departmental activities to include homeland security analysis and threat warning; border security; critical infrastructure protection; support to, and the sharing of information with, state, local, tribal, and private sector partners. It also discusses several oversight challenges and options for Congress to consider on these issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503324/
Criminal Prohibitions on the Publication of Classified Defense Information
The recent online publication of classified defense documents by the organization WikiLeaks and subsequent reporting by the New York Times and other news media have focused attention on whether such publication violates U.S. criminal law. The Justice Department and Department of Defense are investigating the circumstances to determine whether any prosecutions will be undertaken in connection with the disclosure. This report identifies some criminal statutes that may apply and also discusses the statutory prohibitions that may be implicated, such as the Espionage Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31369/
Criminal Prohibitions on the Publication of Classified Defense Information
The recent online publication of classified defense documents by the organization WikiLeaks and subsequent reporting by the New York Times and other news media have focused attention on whether such publication violates U.S. criminal law. The Justice Department and Department of Defense are investigating the circumstances to determine whether any prosecutions will be undertaken in connection with the disclosure. This report discusses the statutory prohibitions that may be implicated, including the Espionage Act; the extraterritorial application of such statutes; and the First Amendment implications related to such prosecutions against domestic or foreign media organizations and associated individuals. The report provides a summary of recent legislation relevant to the issue as well as some previous efforts to criminalize the unauthorized disclosure of classified information. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31474/
Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives
This report describes the current select committees on intelligence; characteristics and a model for a possible joint committee; recent actions by Congress; and obstacles affecting legislative oversight in the field. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87285/
The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions
The U.S. Secret Service has two missions: criminal investigations and protection. This report looks at the history of the organization and purpose as it relates to Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85477/
Intelligence and Law Enforcement: Countering Transnational Threats to the U.S.
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1831/
The Director of National Intelligence and Intelligence Analysis
The 9/11 Commission made a number of recommendations to improve the quality of intelligence analysis. A key recommendation was the establishment of a Director of National Intelligence (DNI) position to manage the national intelligence effort and serve as the principal intelligence adviser to the President — along with a separate director of the Central Intelligence Agency. Subsequently, the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, P.L. 108-458, made the DNI the principal adviser to the President on intelligence and made the DNI responsible for coordinating communitywide intelligence estimates. Some observers note that separating the DNI from the analytical offices may complicate the overall analytical effort. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10109/
Covert Action: Legislative Background and Possible Policy Questions
Published reports have suggested that in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the Pentagon has expanded its counter-terrorism intelligence activities as part of what the Bush Administration termed the global war on terror. This report discusses the Department of Defense's (DOD) various counter-terrorist intelligence activities, whether or not they constitute classification as "covert action," and the challenge of clarifying the roles and responsibilities of various intelligence activities with regard to clandestine activities. This report examines the statutory procedures governing covert action and associated questions to consider. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84067/
Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives
This report, to be updated as events dictate, describes the current select committees on intelligence; characteristics and a model for a possible joint committee; recent actions by Congress; and obstacles affecting legislative oversight in the field. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84042/
Homeland Security: Intelligence Support
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10060/
Comparison of 9/11 Commission Recommended Intelligence Reforms, Roberts Draft Bill, H.R. 4104, S. 190, S. 1520, S. 6, H.R. 4584, and Current Law
This report, the first of two reports, presents side-by-side comparisons of the 9/11 Commission recommendations and legislation proposed by Senators Feinstein, Bob Graham, Daschle, and Roberts; and Representatives Harman and Goss, and relevant provisions of current law. A second report (CRS Report RL32601) presents a side-by-side comparison of the 9/11 Commission recommendations and legislation proposed by Senators Collins, Lieberman, and McCain; President Bush; and relevant provisions of current law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8008/
China: Suspected Acquisition of U.S. Nuclear Weapon Secrets
This CRS Report discusses China’s suspected acquisition of U.S. nuclear weapon secrets, including that on the W88, the newest U.S. nuclear warhead, since the late 1970s. This current controversy, began in early 1999, raises policy issues about whether U.S. security is further threatened by the PRC’s suspected use of U.S. nuclear weapon secrets in its development of nuclear forces, as well as whether the Administration’s response to the security problems is effective or mishandled and whether it fairly used or abused its investigative and prosecuting authority. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8458/
Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Programs: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5972/
Lawfulness of Interrogation Techniques under the Geneva Conventions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5978/
Comparison of 9/11 Commission Recommended Intelligence Reforms, S. 2845, S. 2774, H.R. 5024, Administration Proposal, H.R. 10, Current Law
This report, the second of two reports, presents side-by-side comparisons of the 9/11 Commission recommendations and current law and legislation proposed by Senators Collins and Lieberman (S. 2845) and unanimously approved by the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee on September 22, 2004, as amended; House Speaker Dennis Hastert (H.R. 10), as reported out be the House Committee on Rules; Senators McCain and Lieberman (S. 2774); Representative Pelosi (H.R. 5024); and President Bush. CRS Report RL32600 presents side-by-side comparisons of the 9/11 Commission recommendations and current law; and legislation proposed by Senators Feinstein, Bob Graham, Daschle, and Roberts; President Bush; and relevant provisions of current law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5979/
Secrecy Versus Openness: New Proposed Arrangements for Balancing Competing Needs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5932/
Secrecy Versus Openness: New Proposed Arrangements for Balancing Competing Needs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5933/
S.Res. 445: Senate Committee Reorganization for Homeland Security and Intelligence Matters
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5772/
The National Intelligence Director and Intelligence Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5987/
Comparison of 9/11 Commission Recommended Intelligence Reforms, S. 2845, S. 2774, H.R. 5024, Administration Proposal, H.R. 10, Current Law
This report, the second of two reports, presents side-by-side comparisons of the 9/11 Commission recommendations and current law and legislation proposed by Senators Collins and Lieberman (S. 2845) and unanimously approved by the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee on September 22, 2004, as amended; House Speaker Dennis Hastert (H.R. 10), as reported out be the House Committee on Rules; Senators McCain and Lieberman (S. 2774); Representative Pelosi (H.R. 5024); and President Bush. CRS Report RL32600 presents side-by-side comparisons of the 9/11 Commission recommendations and current law; and legislation proposed by Senators Feinstein, Bob Graham, Daschle, and Roberts; President Bush; and relevant provisions of current law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5980/
Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004: "Lone Wolf" Amendment to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5988/
H.R. 10 (9/11 Recommendations Implementation Act) and S. 2845 (National Intelligence Reform Act of 2004): A Comparative Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5984/
The National Intelligence Director and Intelligence Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5986/
H.R. 10 (9/11 Recommendations Implementation Act) and S. 2845 (National Intelligence Reform Act of 2004): A Comparative Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5983/
The Intelligence Community and 9/11: Congressional Hearings and the Status of the Investigation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5056/
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9479/
Department of Veteran Affairs: Information Security and Information Technology Management Reorganization
On May 3, 2006, the home of a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) data analyst was burglarized, resulting in the theft of a laptop computer and an external data storage device that was reported to contain personal information on more than 26 million veterans and United States military personnel. The VA Secretary testified that he was not informed of the incident until May 16, 2006, almost two weeks after the data had been stolen. VA publicly announced the theft on May 22. On June 29, VA announced that the stolen laptop computer and external hard drive had been recovered intact and that, based on a forensic examination conducted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the files on the external hard drive had not been compromised. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9513/
Privacy: An Overview of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6982/