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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications

"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications

Date: July 14, 2009
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Description: "Gang of Four" intelligence notifications generally are oral briefings of certain particularly sensitive non-covert action intelligence activities, including principally, but not exclusively, intelligence collection programs, that the Intelligence Community typically limits to the chairmen and ranking members of the two congressional intelligence committees, and at times, but not always, to their respective staff directors. This report reviews the history of Gang of Four notification process and compares this procedure with that of the "Gang of Eight" notification procedure.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications

"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications

Date: July 20, 2009
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Description: This report reviews the history of Gang of Four notification process and compares this procedure with that of the "Gang of Eight" notification procedure.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire February 28, 2010

Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire February 28, 2010

Date: October 29, 2009
Creator: Henning, Anna C. & Liu, Edward C.
Description: The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) provides a statutory framework by which government agencies may, when gathering foreign intelligence investigation, obtain authorization to conduct electronic surveillance or physical searches, utilize pen registers and trap and trace devices, or access specified business records and other tangible things. This report discusses three sunsetting amendments of FISA which include the "Lone Wolf" provision, "roving" wiretaps, and access to business records.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire February 28, 2010

Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire February 28, 2010

Date: December 23, 2009
Creator: Henning, Anna C. & Liu, Edward C.
Description: The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) provides a statutory framework by which government agencies may, when gathering foreign intelligence investigation, obtain authorization to conduct electronic surveillance or physical searches, utilize pen registers and trap and trace devices, or access specified business records and other tangible things. This report discusses three sunsetting amendments of FISA which include the "Lone Wolf" provision, "roving" wiretaps, and access to business records.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Security Classification Policy and Procedure: E.O. 12958, as Amended

Security Classification Policy and Procedure: E.O. 12958, as Amended

Date: December 31, 2009
Creator: Kosar, Kevin R.
Description: This report describes security classification policy and procedure, largely prescribed in a series of successive presidential executive orders issued over the past 50 years. This policy provides the rationale and arrangements for designating information officially secret for reasons of national security, and for its declassification as well.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congress as a Consumer of Intelligence Information

Congress as a Consumer of Intelligence Information

Date: January 28, 2010
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Description: This report examines the role of Congress as a consumer of national intelligence and examines several issues that Congress might address during the second session of the 111th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire February 28, 2010

Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire February 28, 2010

Date: March 2, 2010
Creator: Henning, Anna C. & Liu, Edward C.
Description: The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) provides a statutory framework by which government agencies may, when gathering foreign intelligence investigation, obtain authorization to conduct electronic surveillance or physical searches, utilize pen registers and trap and trace devices, or access specified business records and other tangible things. This report discusses three sunsetting amendments of FISA which include the "Lone Wolf" provision, "roving" wiretaps, and access to business records.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence Issues for Congress

Intelligence Issues for Congress

Date: October 14, 2010
Creator: Best, Jr., Richard A.
Description: To address the challenges facing the U.S. intelligence community in the 21st century, congressional and executive branch initiatives have sought to improve coordination among the different agencies and to encourage better analysis. This report discusses these challenges and efforts the current and previous Administrations and Congresses have taken and are taking to address them. The report includes criticism of the intelligence community's efforts regarding Iraq, Iran, and other areas. Improved analysis remains a key goal in these discussions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Criminal Prohibitions on the Publication of Classified Defense Information

Criminal Prohibitions on the Publication of Classified Defense Information

Date: October 18, 2010
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Description: The recent online publication of classified defense documents by the organization WikiLeaks and subsequent reporting by the New York Times and other news media have focused attention on whether such publication violates U.S. criminal law. The Justice Department and Department of Defense are investigating the circumstances to determine whether any prosecutions will be undertaken in connection with the disclosure. This report identifies some criminal statutes that may apply and also discusses the statutory prohibitions that may be implicated, such as the Espionage Act.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence Estimates: How Useful to Congress?

Intelligence Estimates: How Useful to Congress?

Date: November 24, 2010
Creator: Best, Jr., Richard A.
Description: National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs) are often of considerable interest to many Members of Congress. NIEs address issues of major national security importance which may require congressional action. However, NIEs have occasionally proved unreliable because they were based on insufficient evidence or contained faulty analysis. This report explores this issue and discusses the NIE process and its relevance to congressional policymaking.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department