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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Intelligence Issues for Congress

Intelligence Issues for Congress

Date: February 17, 2005
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr.
Description: This report discusses legislative initiatives to address the challenges facing the U.S. Intelligence Community in the 21st century. Growing concerns about transnational threats, especially terrorism, are leading to increasingly close cooperation between intelligence and law enforcement agencies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Secrecy Versus Openness: New Proposed Arrangements for Balancing Competing Needs

Secrecy Versus Openness: New Proposed Arrangements for Balancing Competing Needs

Date: December 22, 2004
Creator: Relyea, Harold C.
Description: During the latter half of 2004, disputes arose over whether or not to declassify portions of the sensitive content of reports resulting from congressional investigations and national commission inquiries into the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the war in Iraq, and related matters. As a result, some called for Congress to create a special mechanism for the impartial and expeditious resolution of such disputes (S. 2672/H.R. 4855; S. 2845 amendment). This report discusses the culmination of one such effort at balancing legitimate competing needs for secrecy and openness.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence Issues for Congress

Intelligence Issues for Congress

Date: August 6, 2010
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr.
Description: This report discusses the efforts currently underway to improve coordination and encourage better analysis amongst the various agencies within the U.S. Intelligence Community, especially with regard to the ongoing and prominent issue of international terrorism. In particular, this report addresses the false intelligence regarding Iraqi weapons of mass destruction and the current efforts in Iraq and Iran in general.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.S. Secret Service: History and Missions

The U.S. Secret Service: History and Missions

Date: December 18, 2014
Creator: Reese, Shawn
Description: This report discusses potential policy questions for the upcoming 114th Congress concerning the Service’s mission and organization through an examination of the USSS history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within DHS. The policy questions presented in this report are only considerations, since the Service is widely perceived to be operating and performing its missions effectively for the past 11 years as part of DHS.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Reform of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Courts: Procedural and Operational Changes

Reform of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Courts: Procedural and Operational Changes

Date: January 16, 2014
Creator: Nolan, Andrew & Thompson, Richard M., II
Description: This report begins with an overview of both the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Court of Review, including the jurisdiction of these courts, how the judges are appointed, and the FISC’s practices and procedures for reviewing and issuing surveillance orders. The report then discusses the scope and underlying legal principles behind congressional regulation of the procedures of the federal courts, and applies those principles with respect to the various proposals to reform the FISA judicial review process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Paris Attacks and "Going Dark": Intelligence-Related Issues to Consider

Paris Attacks and "Going Dark": Intelligence-Related Issues to Consider

Date: November 19, 2015
Creator: Miles, Anne Daugherty
Description: This report discusses intelligence efforts on tracking numerous individuals involved in the deadly assault in Paris on November 13, 2015.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: An Overview of the Statutory Framework and U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court and U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review Decisions

The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: An Overview of the Statutory Framework and U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court and U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review Decisions

Date: February 15, 2007
Creator: Bazan, Elizabeth B.
Description: This report discusses the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA), the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001, and other related amendments that were included in the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Intelligence Community and Its Use of Contractors: Congressional Oversight Issues

The Intelligence Community and Its Use of Contractors: Congressional Oversight Issues

Date: August 18, 2015
Creator: Halchin, L. E.
Description: The report examines, from an acquisition perspective, several reasons for interest in the intelligence community's (IC) use of contractors, notably, the types of functions contractors perform, whether the IC's acquisition workforce has the capacity to oversee contractors.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: An Overview of Selected Issues

The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: An Overview of Selected Issues

Date: July 7, 2008
Creator: Bazan, Elizabeth B.
Description: This report briefly outlines some of the perspectives reflected in the ongoing debate related to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) focusing on three issues: tension between national security and civil liberties, collection of foreign intelligence information from foreign persons, and limitations on liability for telecommunications providers furnishing aid to the government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Covert Action: Legislative Background and Possible Policy Questions

Covert Action: Legislative Background and Possible Policy Questions

Date: February 9, 2009
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Description: This report examines the statutory procedures governing covert action and associated questions to consider. Published reports have suggested that the Pentagon has expanded its counter-terrorism intelligence activities, and some observers have asserted that the Department of Defense (DOD) may have been conducting certain kinds of counterterrorism intelligence activities that would statutorily qualify as "covert actions," and thus require a presidential finding and the notification of the congressional intelligence committees.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Government Access to Phone Calling Activity and Related Records: Legal Authorities

Government Access to Phone Calling Activity and Related Records: Legal Authorities

Date: February 2, 2009
Creator: Bazan, Elizabeth B.; Liu, Edward C. & Stevens, Gina
Description: This report summarizes legal authorities regarding access by the government, for either foreign intelligence or law enforcement purposes, to information related to telephone calling patterns or practices. Where pertinent, it also discusses statutory prohibitions against accessing or disclosing such information, along with relevant exceptions to those prohibitions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: Comparison of the Senate Amendment to H.R. 3773 and the House Amendment to the Senate Amendment to H.R. 3773

The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: Comparison of the Senate Amendment to H.R. 3773 and the House Amendment to the Senate Amendment to H.R. 3773

Date: June 12, 2008
Creator: Bazan, Elizabeth B.
Description: This report provides an overview and review of legislative activity related to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA). It also includes a detailed side-by-side comparison of the proposals to address FISA concerns: Senate Amendment to H.R. 3773 and the House Amendment to the Senate Amendment to H.R. 3773.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence Issues for Congress

Intelligence Issues for Congress

Date: May 30, 2008
Creator: Best, Richard A, Jr.
Description: This report explores the various issues currently facing Congress in regards to intelligence and counterterrorism activities, including the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (P.L. 108-458), signed in December 2004; the position of Director of National Intelligence (DNI), which that act created; the importance of collaborative efforts between various intelligence agencies to successfully carry out counterterrorism measures; and other pieces of legislation relevant to such matters.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The National Intelligence Council: Issues and Options for Congress

The National Intelligence Council: Issues and Options for Congress

Date: April 10, 2009
Creator: Best, Richard A, Jr.
Description: This report to describe the statutory provisions that authorize the National Intelligence Council (NIC), provide a brief history of its work, and review its role within the federal government. The report will focus on congressional interaction with the NIC and describe various options for modifying congressional oversight.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Department of Homeland Security Intelligence Enterprise: Operational Overview and Oversight Challenges for Congress

The Department of Homeland Security Intelligence Enterprise: Operational Overview and Oversight Challenges for Congress

Date: May 27, 2009
Creator: Randol, Mark A.
Description: This report provides an overview of Department of Homeland Security Intelligence (DHSI) both at headquarters and within the components. It examines how DHSI is organized and supports key departmental activities to include homeland security analysis and threat warning; border security; critical infrastructure protection; and support to, and the sharing of information with, state, local, tribal, and private sector partners. It also discusses several oversight challenges and options that Congress may consider on certain issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Perspectives on the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI) Study and Enhanced Interrogation Techniques: In Brief

Perspectives on the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI) Study and Enhanced Interrogation Techniques: In Brief

Date: May 14, 2015
Creator: Daugherty Miles, Anne
Description: Much of the discussion and debate following the December release of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI) Study of the Central Intelligence Agency's (CIA's) Detention and Interrogation (D&I) Program (SSCI Study) has focused on the CIA's use of Enhanced Interrogation Techniques (EITs) on certain individuals labeled "high value detainees" (HVDs). This report discusses views expressed by public officials, academics, and commentators in a variety of sources.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Overview of Constitutional Challenges to NSA Collection Activities

Overview of Constitutional Challenges to NSA Collection Activities

Date: May 21, 2015
Creator: Liu, Edward C. & Nolan, Andrew
Description: This report focuses on two main National Security Agency (NSA) collection activities approved by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) established under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978. The first is the bulk collection of telephony metadata for domestic and international telephone calls. The second involves the interception of Internet-based communications.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The National Intelligence Council: Issues and Options for Congress

The National Intelligence Council: Issues and Options for Congress

Date: September 2, 2009
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr.
Description: The purpose of this report to describe the statutory provisions that authorize the National Intelligence Council (NIC), provide a brief history of its work, and review its role within the federal government. The report will focus on congressional interaction with the NIC and describe various options for modifying congressional oversight.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sensitive Covert Action Notifications: Oversight Options for Congress

Sensitive Covert Action Notifications: Oversight Options for Congress

Date: September 25, 2009
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Description: This report describes the statutory provision authorizing Gang of Eight notifications, reviews the legislative history of the provision, and examines the impact of such notifications on congressional oversight.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sensitive Covert Action Notifications: Oversight Options for Congress

Sensitive Covert Action Notifications: Oversight Options for Congress

Date: July 30, 2009
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Description: This report describes the statutory provision authorizing Gang of Eight notifications, reviews the legislative history of the provision, and examines the impact of such notifications on congressional oversight.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence Issues for Congress

Intelligence Issues for Congress

Date: September 18, 2009
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr.
Description: This report discusses the efforts currently underway to improve coordination and encourage better analysis amongst the various agencies within the U.S. Intelligence Community, especially with regard to the ongoing and prominent issue of international terrorism. In particular, this report addresses the false intelligence regarding Iraqi weapons of mass destruction and the current efforts in Iraq and Iran in general.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization in Brief

Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization in Brief

Date: May 19, 2015
Creator: Liu, Edward C. & Doyle, Charles
Description: This report discusses the legal background associated with the sunset of various provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act and of subsequent related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: Legal Background and Recent Amendments

National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: Legal Background and Recent Amendments

Date: September 8, 2009
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: This report discusses the National Security Letters (NSLs), which seek customer and consumer transaction information in national security investigations from communications providers, financial institutions, and credit agencies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications

"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications

Date: September 25, 2009
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Description: This report reviews the history of Gang of Four notification process and compares this procedure with that of the "Gang of Eight" notification procedure.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department