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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Copyright Law: Legalizing Home Taping of Audio and Video Recordings

Copyright Law: Legalizing Home Taping of Audio and Video Recordings

Date: July 8, 1982
Creator: Wallace Jr., Paul S
Description: Various Members of Congress have proposed amendments to the Copyright Act that would provide a blanket exemption for noncommercial home audio and video off-air recording. The major thrust of the copyright owners' opposing position is if you cannot protect what you own, or at least receive some compensation for its use, you own nothing. This is countered by those who feel the purpose of the copyright law is to promote broad public availability of artistic products and when the copyright owners decide to use the distribution mechanism of the public airwaves, they have to accept the premises of the public airwaves.
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Patenting Life

Patenting Life

Date: February 24, 1988
Creator: Taylor, Sarah E
Description: None
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Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights

Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights

Date: April 16, 1993
Creator: Axt, Josephie R; Lee, Margaret Mikyung & Ackerman, David M
Description: This report examines intellectual property right in pharmaceuticals in a particular context, namely, medicinal products and processes derived from the biodiversity resources of areas inhabited by indigenous peoples. This report discusses the international law regarding intellectual property rights in traditional knowledge and the American laws regarding traditional knowledge.
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Intellectual Property Provisions of the GATT 1994: "The TRIPS Agreement"

Intellectual Property Provisions of the GATT 1994: "The TRIPS Agreement"

Date: March 16, 1994
Creator: Schrader, Dorothy
Description: None
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The GATT and the WTO: An Overview

The GATT and the WTO: An Overview

Date: March 27, 1995
Creator: Wilson, Arlene
Description: The Uruguay Round Agreement reduced tariffs, brought services, intellectual property, and agriculture under the discipline of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and established the World Trade Organization. Multilateral trade issues for the future include continuing services negotiations, the relationship of the environment and labor standards to trade, and investment and competition policy.
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The China-U.S. Trade Agreement on Intellectual Property Rights: Implications for China-U.S. Trade Relations

The China-U.S. Trade Agreement on Intellectual Property Rights: Implications for China-U.S. Trade Relations

Date: April 5, 1995
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M
Description: None
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The China-U.S. Intellectual Property Rights Dispute: Background and Implications for China-U.S. Economic Relations

The China-U.S. Intellectual Property Rights Dispute: Background and Implications for China-U.S. Economic Relations

Date: May 24, 1996
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M
Description: None
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Patent Reform: Overview and Comparison of S. 507 and H.R. 400

Patent Reform: Overview and Comparison of S. 507 and H.R. 400

Date: April 16, 1998
Creator: Dorothy Schrader
Description: H.R. 400 and S. 507 are similar but different omnibus patent reform proposals. Both bills generally transform the Patent and Trademark Office into a government corporation; require publication of patent applications 18 months after filing, subject to certain exceptions that differ in these bills; and extend the patent term for certain delays in patent issuance. S. 507 also contains provisions on patent reexamination reform. This report summarizes and compares the bills and reviews arguments for and against the proposals.
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Copyright Term Extension: Estimating the Economic Values

Copyright Term Extension: Estimating the Economic Values

Date: May 11, 1998
Creator: Rappaport, Edward B
Description: This report considers proposals to extend the duration of copyrights by 20 years (as in H.R. 2589 and other bills) and related proposals to charge a fee to the owners in order to receive the extension. The method of analysis is economic rather than legal. The report reviews the basic economic principals involved in copyright law and gives rough estimates of the value of copyrights on books, music, and movies produced in the 1920s and 1930s — those that would be most immediately affected by an extension of copyright terms.
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Copyright Term Extension: Estimating the Economic Values

Copyright Term Extension: Estimating the Economic Values

Date: May 11, 1998
Creator: Rappaport, Edward
Description: This report considers proposals to extend the duration of copyrights by 20 years (as in H.R. 2589 and other bills) and related proposals to charge a fee to the owners in order to receive the extension. The method of analysis is economic rather than legal. The report reviews the basic economic principals involved in copyright law and gives rough estimates of the value of copyrights on books, music, and movies produced in the 1920s and 1930s — those that would be most immediately affected by an extension of copyright terms.
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Patent Reform: Overview and Comparison of S. 507 and H.R. 400

Patent Reform: Overview and Comparison of S. 507 and H.R. 400

Date: August 4, 1998
Creator: Schrader, Dorothy
Description: None
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Intellectual Property Protection for Noncreative Databases

Intellectual Property Protection for Noncreative Databases

Date: September 15, 1999
Creator: Schrader, Dorothy & Jeweler, Robin
Description: None
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American Inventors Protection Act of 1999

American Inventors Protection Act of 1999

Date: February 28, 2000
Creator: Seitzinger, Michael V.
Description: After several years of consideration, on Friday, November 19, 1999, Congress gave final approval to a bill which makes major changes to the patent laws. On this day the Senate passed the American Inventors Protection Act of 1999 as part of the Intellectual Property and Communications Omnibus Reform Act of 1999, attached by reference to the Consolidated Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2000. This report summarizes major provisions of the patent reform bill.
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The Copyright Doctrine of Fair Use and the Internet: Caselaw

The Copyright Doctrine of Fair Use and the Internet: Caselaw

Date: March 30, 2000
Creator: Weimer, Douglas R.
Description: This report examines the evolving copyright doctrine of fair use within the context of copyrighted works published or placed on the Internet. American courts have been examining the various property rights of copyright owners concurrently with the unauthorized use of these copyrighted materials by Web site operators, Internet consumers, access providers, and other interested parties. This report analyzes the early fair use copyright cases concerning Internet use, as well as the most recent judicial interpretations.
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An Examination of the Issues Surrounding Biotechnology Patenting and Its Effect Upon Entrepreneurial Companies

An Examination of the Issues Surrounding Biotechnology Patenting and Its Effect Upon Entrepreneurial Companies

Date: August 31, 2000
Creator: Thomas, John R
Description: The biotechnology industry is notable both for its heavy concentration of small businesses and its weighty research and development (R&D) expenditures. Given the small size and heavy expenses of many biotechnology firms, their ability to raise venture capital may be of some consequence. The patent law has been identified as a facilitator of these R&D financing efforts. Congress may choose to exercise oversight on these issues. Such consideration would likely include examination of U.S. commitments in international agreements along with other factors.
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R&D Partnerships and Intellectual Property: Implications for U.S. Policy

R&D Partnerships and Intellectual Property: Implications for U.S. Policy

Date: December 6, 2000
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H
Description: None
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Patent Ownership and Federal Research and Development (R and D): A Discussion on the Bayh-Dole Act and the Stevenson-Wydler Act

Patent Ownership and Federal Research and Development (R and D): A Discussion on the Bayh-Dole Act and the Stevenson-Wydler Act

Date: December 11, 2000
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H
Description: None
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New York Times Co. v. Tasini: The U.S. Supreme Court Affirms “Authorial” Rights in Copyright

New York Times Co. v. Tasini: The U.S. Supreme Court Affirms “Authorial” Rights in Copyright

Date: July 13, 2001
Creator: Jeweler, Robin
Description: This report examines the U.S. Supreme Court’s opinion in New York Times Co. v. Tasini. This case considers whether, under the U.S. Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. § 201(c), publishers are “privileged” to include the copyrighted articles of freelance authors in an electronic database.
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Fair Use on the Internet

Fair Use on the Internet

Date: May 21, 2002
Creator: Jennings, Christopher Alan
Description: None
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Plants, Patents, and Seed Innovation in the Agricultural Industry

Plants, Patents, and Seed Innovation in the Agricultural Industry

Date: September 13, 2002
Creator: Thomas, John R.
Description: This report offers an overview of the availability of intellectual property rights for plants, focusing upon the seed industry. It initially offers an introduction to seed innovation. The report then reviews the three intellectual property regimes applicable to plant innovation: utility patents, plant patents and plant variety protection certificates. It then details a 2001 decision of the U.S. Supreme Court, J.E.M. Ag Supply, Inc. v. Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., which held that sexually reproducing plants may be subject to utility patents.
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Copyright Term Extension: Eldred v. Ashcroft

Copyright Term Extension: Eldred v. Ashcroft

Date: February 14, 2003
Creator: Jeweler, Robin
Description: This report examines the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Eldred v. Ashcroft. Plaintiffs/Petitioners challenged the constitutionality under the Copyright Clause of a law adding 20 years to the terms of existing and future copyrights. The law was upheld by both the U.S. district court and the court of appeals considering it. Among the questions before the Supreme Court was whether Congress may retrospectively extend the term of copyright for existing copyrights; and, what role and impact, if any, does the First Amendment have in determining the validity of a congressional extension of copyright terms.
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"Digital Rights" and Fair Use in Copyright Law

"Digital Rights" and Fair Use in Copyright Law

Date: March 24, 2003
Creator: Jeweler, Robin
Description: This report examines judicial case law which has considered the doctrine of fair use in relation to the First Amendment, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, and as a means of protecting private, noncommercial use of digital music and film by consumers. It concludes that when the potential to infringe is great, as it almost always will be in a digital environment, the courts have not been willing to expand fair use to encompass subsidiary uses such as time shifting, space shifting, or personal noncommercial use.
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Geographical Indications and WTO Negotiations

Geographical Indications and WTO Negotiations

Date: July 14, 2003
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E
Description: This report discusses the issue of expanding intellectual property protections for geographical indications for wines, spirits, and agricultural products is being debated in the World Trade Organization (WTO).
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Genetically Engineered Soybeans: Acceptance and Intellectual Property Rights Issues in South America

Genetically Engineered Soybeans: Acceptance and Intellectual Property Rights Issues in South America

Date: October 17, 2003
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: This report discusses issues regarding genetically engineered soybeans in South America. U.S. soybean growers and trade officials charge that Argentina and Brazil–the United States’ two major export competitors in international soybean markets–gain an unfair trade advantage by routinely saving genetically-engineered (GE), Roundup Ready (RR) soybean seeds from the previous harvest (a practice prohibited in the United States) for planting in subsequent years.
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