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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Refugee Admissions and Resettlement Policy

Refugee Admissions and Resettlement Policy

Date: March 7, 2012
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Description: Typically, the annual number of refugees that can be admitted into the United States, known as the refugee ceiling, and the allocation of these numbers by region are set by the President after consultation with Congress at the start of each fiscal year. For FY2012, the worldwide refugee ceiling is 76,000, with 73,000 admissions numbers allocated among the regions of the world and 3,000 numbers comprising an unallocated reserve. Overseas processing of refugees is conducted through a system of three priorities for admission. Priority 1 comprises cases involving persons facing compelling security concerns. Priority 2 comprises cases involving persons from specific groups of special humanitarian concern to the United States (e.g., Iranian religious minorities). Priority 3 comprises family reunification cases involving close relatives of persons admitted as refugees or granted asylum. Special legislative provisions facilitate relief for certain refugee groups.
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Syrian Refugee Admissions to the United States

Syrian Refugee Admissions to the United States

Date: September 10, 2015
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Description: This report briefly discusses issues regarding refugees fleeing from Syria. With some European countries pledging to accept increased numbers of Syrian and other asylum seekers in the face of a refugee crisis, attention is focused on the United States and its plans to admit Syrian and other refugees in FY2016 and beyond.
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Unauthorized Employment in the United States: Issues, Options, and Legislation

Unauthorized Employment in the United States: Issues, Options, and Legislation

Date: March 2, 2009
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Description: As immigration reform and the illegal alien population have gained congressional and public attention in the past several years, the issue of unauthorized employment has come to the fore. It is widely accepted that most unauthorized aliens enter and remain in the United States in order to work. This report discusses options for addressing the issue of unauthorized employment in the United States.
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Unauthorized Employment in the United States: Issues and Options

Unauthorized Employment in the United States: Issues and Options

Date: April 20, 2007
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Description: As Congress considers immigration reform and ways to address the unauthorized alien population, the issue of unauthorized employment is the focus of much discussion. This report discusses options for addressing unauthorized employment in the United States.
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Immigration: Foreign Physicians and the J-1 Visa Waiver Program

Immigration: Foreign Physicians and the J-1 Visa Waiver Program

Date: December 9, 2004
Creator: Ester, Karma A.
Description: This report focuses on those IMGs who are foreign nationals, hereafter referred to as foreign medical graduates (FMGs). Many FMGs first entered the United States to receive graduate medical education and training as cultural exchange visitors through the J-1 cultural exchange program. Other ways for FMGs to enter the United States include other temporary visa programs as well as permanent immigration avenues such as family- or employment-based immigration, the diversity lottery, and humanitarian relief provisions.
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Immigration of Foreign Workers: Labor Market Tests and Protections

Immigration of Foreign Workers: Labor Market Tests and Protections

Date: August 27, 2010
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report discusses ยง1611, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, which requires companies receiving Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) funding to comply with the more rigorous labor market rules of H-1B dependent companies if they hire foreign workers on H-1B visas.
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Unauthorized Aliens in the United States: Policy Discussion

Unauthorized Aliens in the United States: Policy Discussion

Date: May 8, 2014
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Description: This report discusses the unauthorized immigrant (illegal alien) population in the United States, which is a key and controversial immigration issue.
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Visa Waiver Program

Visa Waiver Program

Date: March 19, 2014
Creator: Siskin, Alison
Description: This report discusses the visa waiver program (VWP), which allows foreign visitors to bypass the first, screening step for admissibility to enter the United States. Some policymakers are concerned that this waiver allows terrorists to more easily enter the country. The report provides waiver-related statistics and related legislation.
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Unauthorized Aliens Residing in the United States: Estimates Since 1986

Unauthorized Aliens Residing in the United States: Estimates Since 1986

Date: January 23, 2014
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report presents data estimating since 1986 the number of unauthorized aliens who have been living in the United States. There have been a variety of estimates of the unauthorized resident alien population over this period, sometimes with substantially different results. This report is limited to analyses of the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics and of the American Community Survey (ACS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau so that there are basic standards of comparison over time.
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Birthright Citizenship Under the 14th Amendment of Persons Born in the United States to Alien Parents

Birthright Citizenship Under the 14th Amendment of Persons Born in the United States to Alien Parents

Date: August 12, 2010
Creator: Lee, Margaret Mikyung
Description: This report provides background information on birthright citizenship to alien parents in the U.S. The report ends with a detail of amendments in the 112th Congress that would amend the Constitution to exclude from citizenship at birth persons born in the United States whose parents are unlawfully present in the United States or are non-immigrant aliens.
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State and Local Restrictions on Employing, Renting Property to, or Providing Services for Unauthorized Aliens: Legal Issues and Recent Judicial Developments

State and Local Restrictions on Employing, Renting Property to, or Providing Services for Unauthorized Aliens: Legal Issues and Recent Judicial Developments

Date: December 20, 2010
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.; Feder, Jody & Smith, Alison M.
Description: This report discusses the constitutional issues raised by state and local laws intended to deter the presence of unauthorized aliens by limiting their access to housing, employment, and public benefits, as well as the implications that federal civil rights statutes might have for the implementation and enforcement of these laws. It also discusses recent federal court cases addressing the constitutionality of such measures.
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Asylum Policies for Unaccompanied Children Compared with Expedited Removal Policies for Unauthorized Adults: In Brief

Asylum Policies for Unaccompanied Children Compared with Expedited Removal Policies for Unauthorized Adults: In Brief

Date: July 30, 2014
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report focuses on unaccompanied alien children as asylum seekers. To bring clarity to the unique policies toward unaccompanied children, this report compares their treatment to that of unauthorized adults and families with children in the specific contexts of asylum and expedited removal.
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Unauthorized Aliens Residing in the United States: Estimates Since 1986

Unauthorized Aliens Residing in the United States: Estimates Since 1986

Date: December 13, 2012
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report presents data estimating since 1986 the number of unauthorized aliens who have been living in the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration: Terrorist Grounds for Exclusion and Removal of Aliens

Immigration: Terrorist Grounds for Exclusion and Removal of Aliens

Date: July 2, 2008
Creator: Garcia, Michael John & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report focuses on the terrorism-related grounds for inadmissibility and deportation/removal. It opens with an overview of the terror-related grounds as they evolved through key legislation enacted in recent years. The section on current law explains the legal definitions of "terrorist activity," "engage in terrorist activity," and "terrorist organization," and describes the terror-related grounds for inadmissibility and removal. The report then discusses the alien screening process to determine admissibility and to identify possible terrorists, both during the visa issuance process abroad and the inspections process at U.S. ports of entry.
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Immigration: Terrorist Grounds for Exclusion and Removal of Aliens

Immigration: Terrorist Grounds for Exclusion and Removal of Aliens

Date: May 20, 2008
Creator: Garcia, Michael John & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report focuses on the terrorism-related grounds for inadmissibility and deportation/removal. It opens with an overview of the terror-related grounds as they evolved through key legislation enacted in recent years. The section on current law explains the legal definitions of "terrorist activity," "engage in terrorist activity," and "terrorist organization," and describes the terror-related grounds for inadmissibility and removal. The report then discusses the alien screening process to determine admissibility and to identify possible terrorists, both during the visa issuance process abroad and the inspections process at U.S. ports of entry.
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Visa Waiver Program

Visa Waiver Program

Date: January 15, 2013
Creator: Siskin, Alison
Description: This report discusses the visa waiver program (VWP), which allows foreign visitors to bypass the first, screening step for admissibility to enter the United States. Some policymakers are concerned that this waiver allows terrorists to more easily enter the country. The report provides waiver-related statistics and related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unauthorized Aliens in the United States

Unauthorized Aliens in the United States

Date: April 27, 2010
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Description: This report discusses the unauthorized immigrant (illegal alien) population in the United States, which is a key and controversial immigration issue.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Immigration Policy: Chart Book of Key Trends

U.S. Immigration Policy: Chart Book of Key Trends

Date: December 17, 2014
Creator: Kandel, William A.
Description: This report is a chart book of selected immigration trends that touch on the main elements of comprehensive immigration reform (CIR). Most policymakers agree that the main issues in CIR include increased border security and immigration enforcement, improved employment eligibility verification, revision of legal immigration, and options to address the millions of unauthorized aliens residing in the country. The report offers snapshots of time series data, using the most complete and consistent time series currently available for each statistic. The key findings and elements germane to the data depicted are summarized with the figures. The summary offers the highlights of key immigration trends.
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People Crossing Borders: An Analysis of U.S. Border Protection Policies

People Crossing Borders: An Analysis of U.S. Border Protection Policies

Date: May 13, 2010
Creator: Haddal, Chad C.
Description: This report provides an overview of the current border protection framework and its operationally oriented strategic elements and measures their effectiveness. The report draws on documents from Congress and the Administration, as well as other publications, to pull together an overarching picture of protection at the border. This overview includes a historical background and a definition of what "border protection" means in a contemporary context. Building on this definition, the report provides two theoretical models for border protection approaches based on unilateral and cooperative approaches, followed by an extended analysis of the major elements within the current border protection framework. This analysis also includes discussions of how and why, certain strategic elements notwithstanding, many of the current border-related security policies focus on the physical border rather than conceptualizing the border in broader terms. Lastly, this report offers some policy options--both short-term and long-term--for addressing the effectiveness of current border protection policies.
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The President's Immigration Accountability Executive Action of November 20, 2014: Overview and Issues

The President's Immigration Accountability Executive Action of November 20, 2014: Overview and Issues

Date: February 24, 2015
Creator: Kandel, William A.; Bjelopera, Jerome P.; Bruno, Andorra & Siskin, Alison
Description: This report discusses President Obama Immigration Accountability Executive Action which would revise some U.S. immigration policies and initiate several programs, including a revised border security policy for the Southwest border.
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Immigration: Terrorist Grounds for Exclusion and Removal of Aliens

Immigration: Terrorist Grounds for Exclusion and Removal of Aliens

Date: January 12, 2010
Creator: Garcia, Michael J. & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report focuses on the terrorism-related grounds for inadmissibility and deportation/removal. It opens with an overview of the terror-related grounds as they evolved through recent years. The section on current law explains several legal definitions, and describes the terror-related grounds for inadmissibility and removal. The report then discusses the screening process to determine admissibility and to identify possible terrorists.
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Arizona v. United States: A Limited Role for States in Immigration Enforcement

Arizona v. United States: A Limited Role for States in Immigration Enforcement

Date: September 10, 2012
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Garcia, Michael John
Description: Report that discusses the Supreme Court's ruling in Arizona v. United States, and considers the implications that the decision may have for immigration enforcement activity by states and localities.
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Authority of State and Local Police to Enforce Federal Immigration Law

Authority of State and Local Police to Enforce Federal Immigration Law

Date: September 17, 2010
Creator: Garcia, Michael John & Manuel, Kate M.
Description: This report discusses the authority of state and local law enforcement to assist in the enforcement of federal immigration law through the investigation and arrest of persons believed to have violated such laws. It describes current provisions in federal law that permit state and local police to enforce immigration law directly, analyzes major cases concerning the ability of states and localities to assist in immigration enforcement, and briefly examines opinions on the issue by the Office of Legal Counsel (OLC) within the Department of Justice.
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Authority of State and Local Police to Enforce Federal Immigration Law

Authority of State and Local Police to Enforce Federal Immigration Law

Date: September 17, 2010
Creator: Garcia, Michael John & Manuel, Kate M.
Description: This report discusses the authority of state and local law enforcement to assist in the enforcement of federal immigration law through the investigation and arrest of persons believed to have violated such laws. It describes current provisions in federal law that permit state and local police to enforce immigration law directly, analyzes major cases concerning the ability of states and localities to assist in immigration enforcement, and briefly examines opinions on the issue by the Office of Legal Counsel (OLC) within the Department of Justice.
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